WJEC Computing AS Key Information

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  • Created by: Beth Dion
  • Created on: 24-08-13 00:07
What is Assembly Code?
it allows programmers to use mneumonics and denary numbers instead of 0s and 1s
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What is a LAN?
A local area network is a method of connecting computers together in a small geographical area.
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Advantages of Networks?
1. Allows sharing of resources 2. Allows sharing of Information 3.Easier to back up data 4.Easier to store programs 5.Allows electric mail to be sent 5.Easier to set up new users and equipment
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What is a network adapter?
To communicate on a network a computer needs a network adapter or network interface card. It converts data from the computer into a form that can be transferred over the network.
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What is RAM?
Random Access Memory. Known as the main memory. It is referred to the 'memory' It can be accessed very quickly. If the computer loses power, if details arent stored in the RAM then this information will be lost.
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What is an Output device?
Outputs the information (e.g; Monitor, Speakers, Printer)
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Why is conversion required for analogue and digital signals?
In order for them to communicate, a MODEM is needed. It is necessary because it needs to make use of an analogue telephone network to access the network.
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What is Bandwidth?
The amount of data that can be transmitted or recieved in a given period of megabits per second.
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What is an Input Device?
One that is sed to introduce data to a computer (E.g; Keyboard, Mouse, Barcode Reader, OMR, OCR, Scanner, Handwriting Recognition)
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What is interfacing?
Where devices need to communicate with one another.
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What is a data-bus? What does it do?
It is a group of electrical wires used to send information back and forth between two or more components. It refers to the number of bits that make up the wires.
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What is hardware?
The phsyical components that make up the computer. (Could be a monitor, ethernet cable, network card for example)
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What is software?
Software is the computer programs that tell the computer what to do. (Microsoft word)
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What are the main components of a processor?
It is an essental part of a computer. Its main purpose is too 1. perform arithmic calculations and 2. Follow program instructions. The control unit sends control signals in the computer.
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What are the main components of a computer?
Main memory - Processore - Input Devices - Output Devices - Auxilary Storage
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What is a ROM?
Read only memory. Non-Volitile. Contents are permanently etched onto the chip. It holds the bootstrap loader that runs automatically when pc is switched on and off. It may store fixed data assosciated with the system.
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What is an address bus?
It is a collection of wires that connect the CPU to the memory. The width of the bus determines how any memory locations can be addressed.
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What is the internet?
Publicly accessible collection of webpages. Anyone can access these. E-commerce.
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What are health and safety issues?
1.Repetitive Strain Injury. 2.Back Struggle 3.Eyestrain 4.Lacking Fitness 5.Epileptic Fits
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What is a 'Bit' a 'Byte' and 'Word'?
Bit - Smallest unit of data that a device can store. Usually a 1 or 0. Byte- A group of binary data or bits (usually 8) operated as a unit. Word - Not of a fixed length. Typically a number divisible of 8, usually the size of one of its CPU registers.
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What are Buses?
A number or wires used to connect computer components together. There are 3 types of buses. Databus,Control Bus and Address Bus.
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What are secondary storages?
Referred to External Memory. It is a storage medium. It holds information until over writted or deleted. Hard Drives and CPUs are secondary storage. Storage is non-volatile and are typically high capacity.
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What is a digital signal?
A digital signal is discrete. It containts 1 and 0s. It is possible to present on a computer: numbers, letters and imaes. They are high tolerance and have a small bandwidth.
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What is an Analogue Signal?
Continuously variable. They take up more bandwidth but arent high tolerance.
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What is the arithmic and logic unit in the processor?
'Performs mathematical, logical and decision operation in a computer + is the final processing, performed by the processor'
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What is a control unit?
A control unit sends signals within and beyond the computer unit.
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What are the different data types?
Boolean, Character, String, Integer, Real
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What is a linear search?
Linear search goes along a line
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What is a binary search?
Splits in half and looks where number would be depending on size of number and if bigger or smaller.
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What is Repitition? Rogue Values? Constants?
Repetition is when code is executed and repeated until necessary. Rogue Values are deliberate invalid results of a function. Constants - Similar to variables but it stores only one data type.
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Drawbacks of a database management system?
1. Centralised data is easier to steal. 2. If data isnt correct, it still filters through to everyone.
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What are benefits of a database management system?
1. Data accessed quickly 2.Duplication can be avoided 3.Database can be shared 4.Security
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What is screen verification?
Checks on screen and paper form.
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What is a database management system?
Collection of related data that is stored. It sets between the application and file system.
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What is Character validation?
Ensures correct characters are in the field.
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What is a global & local variable?
Global - Declared outside of function. Local - declared within a function
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What is a presence check?
Checks something is there
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What is a type check?
Checks appropriate number is put in
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What is double entry verification?
Some data entered twice and then compared
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What is a Check Digit?
A digit in a numerical field. It performs a calculation of the other digits.
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What are the ways to protect against damage?
1.Password 2.Encryption 3.Access Levels 4.Write Protect 5.Back Up
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What are the advantages of a Bus Topology?
1. Very Cheap 2. Requires a minimal amount of cabling. 3.Easy to add or remove cables.
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What are the advantages of a Star Topology?
1. if one cabl fails, only the device attached is isolated. 2. Faults are easy to find 3.Easy to add extra devices 4.System is secure
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What is zipping?
Reduces the field size and compresses it down
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What is Disk Defragmentation?
Moving file segments bit by bit from one disk location to the other
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What are file attributes?
TXT, DOC,XLS,RTF,HTML,EXE,SWF
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What are facilities of application software?
1.Mailmerge 2.Macros 3.Template 4.Formulaes 5.Look Ups 6. IF Statements 7.Pivot Statements
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What is a Length Validation?
Most fields have a maximum length or minimum length and these check to ensure it is within the range
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What is format Validation?
Looking at the format. (Date/Time, Yes/No, Characters, Digits)
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What is a Look Up Check?
Ensuring data is valid, may have a list to choose from.
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What is a range check?
looking at a range in numerical fields.
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What is an External Entity?
Typically a human user
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What is a process?
Calculation/Sort of filter
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What is a Data Store?
Disc or Tape. Storage
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What is a Hierarchy Chart?
Chart used to show how a larger program is broken down into smaller ones.
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What is a changeover?
The point which the user transitions from an old system to a new system
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What is a direct changeover?
A sudden changeover
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What is a parralel changeoveR?
Both systems run at the same time
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What is a phased changeover?
Elements are introduced one at a time
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What is a pilot changeover?
Different and single departments would change over separately
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What is an operating system? What does it do?
Vital Layer of software that acts as a buffer between components of the computer, programs and peripherals.
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What is a spooling program?
Manages print ques and it determines what was first and orders the print outs.
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What is a command line interface?
Only typed input from the user. Commands before being able to use it. ADVANTAGE- runs quickly and installed on less advanced programs. DISADVANTAEGE-required to learn instructions.
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What is an interface?
Used to allow a human to communicate with the computer.
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What is single taskin?
Only one process is being executed
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What is multi-tasking?
multiple tasks are being executed
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What is cache memory?
A type of fast memory to improve the speed of a computer. It acts as an intermediate store between the CPU and main memory. It works by storing frequent or recent instructions or data so it can easily retrieve them.
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What is a record?
Holds variables that include related data
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What is a feasibility study?
Examines an existing system to see if it is worthwhile. it must see if benefits weigh out the costs of it.
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What is a dataflow diagram?
Data involved when inputtin and carrying out tasks
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What is an array?
Collection of items that are the same data types. There are 1D, 2D AND 3D Arrays.
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What is corrective maintenance?
Saving problems that occured during run that werent found at manufacturing stage
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What is perfective maintenance?
Making the system as good as it could be for a particular purpose.
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What is adaptive maintenance?
Making changes as they are needed
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What are different documenation stages?
1.System Specification 2. Program Documentation 3.During Testing 4.User manuals 5.Technical Manuals
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What is the Data Protection 1998
1.Obtained and Processed lawfully 2.must be used for intended processes 3.Must not be excessive 4.Held no longer than necessary 5.Must not be shared
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What are the stages to Back up & Recovery?
It is important to have a plan to back up: a copy of data, a routine for backing up data, a safe location to store data.
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What is Malicious and Accidental Damage?
People can accidentally delete a record. Computer Crashes/Hacker/Viruses/Employee/Power Loss/Floods
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Effects on Employment from computers?
BENEFITS- saves space, homeworking, adverse weather, more time to do jobs. DRAWBACKS- equipment can be expensive, security, distractions.
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What are the disadvantages of networks?
1.Users become dependant on them 2.If the network stops operating, it may be impossible to retrive hardware and software resources 3.Difficult to secure it from hackers 4.As traffic increases,performance degrades.
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What are the advantages of a ring topology?
1. No collisions 2. Very high rates of a transmition
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What are network topologies?
Topology of a network is its physical layout and the way that computers and other units are connected. Common topologies are Buses, Stars and Rings.
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What is machine language?
It executes directly without translation. It is the actual patterns of 1s and 0s that are used in computer memory. Machine language is time consumer, laborious and error prone. Few programmers code in it today.
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Card 2

Front

What is a LAN?

Back

A local area network is a method of connecting computers together in a small geographical area.

Card 3

Front

Advantages of Networks?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a network adapter?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is RAM?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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