WJEC - How social change affects social policy.​

Describe 'Informal Policy'?
Policies which are implemented and created by members of community to deal with specific crime that is within their community, and they can implement policy, such as a night watch, or CCTV in shops and above shops.
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Describe 'Formal Policy'?
Policies which are given and created by the law enforcement and judicial system for example prison and community service.
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What are Eugenics?
Eugenics is when biological determinism such as Lombroso, claim that genetics can explain behavioural characteristics and claim biology contributes to the many social problems.
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What is 'Antabuse'?
It works by preventing the body from breaking down the substance alcohol within a person, which causes hangover symptoms.
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Describe 'Sterilisation'?
sterilization of a person who is either mentally ill or mentally defective and will either severely handicap any future offspring through heredity or is unable to properly care for a child.
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Describe 'Psychoanalysis'?
Patients are encouraged to verbalise their thoughts through a variety of methods. This aims to access unconscious and repressed thoughts which may have led to criminal activity. Bringing these thoughts to consciousness, means they can be dealt with
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What is 'Token Economy'?
These techniques focus on reinforcing positive behaviour and punishing criminal behaviours, in order to weaken the thought process leading to the illegal behaviour. A token economy system is one way of doing this. A token is given as a reward.
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What is 'Aversion Therapy'?
Mainly used for the treatment of sex offenders as they are more neurotic and extravert according to the theory. This makes them harder to recondition because they are more resistant to learning through punishment. E.g. Peter Price
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Describe 'Cognative Behavioural Therapy'?
Cognitive theories state that our cognitions (thought processes) shape our behaviour, including offending behaviour. Offenders have ‘distorted cognitions’ that lead them to offend.
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Describe 'Reintegrative Shaming'?
Reintegrative shaming is defined as a form of shaming, imposed as a sanction by the criminal justice system, that is thought to strengthen the moral bond between the offender and the community. Eg. offender made to wear a Sandwich board.
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What is 'Target Hardening'?
strengthening of the security of a building or installation in order to protect it in the event of attack or reduce the risk of theft. E.g. Westminster Bridge Attack
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What is 'Penal Populism'?
The idea that public support for more severe criminal justice policies (most specifically incarceration) has become a primary driver of policy making, as well as of political election cycles. A result of increasingly harsh punishments.
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Describe 'Zero Tolerance'?
police strictly clamping down on minor criminal activities such as littering, begging, graffiti and other forms of antisocial behaviour. E.g. stopping, questioning, and frisking pedestrians
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Describe 'CCTV'?
Its a system that allows you to keep an eye on what's going on in and around your business. Cameras and monitors enable you to view events live, and recorders archive footage for later reference.
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What is 'Restorative Justice'?
brings those harmed by crime or conflict and those responsible for the harm into communication, enabling everyone affected by a particular incident to play a part in repairing the harm and finding a positive way forward. E.g. offender meets Victim
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What is 'Multi-agency approach'?
different organisations and professionals work together to try to help groups or individuals, for example the police might work with social care workers, and health professionals. E.g. to help with anti-social behaviour
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Describe 'Social Values'?
Basic principles which society places important, which tend to determine our behaviours and action within society. E.g. respect the elderly
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Describe 'Social Norms'?
The social expectations, that influence and explain behaviour within a particular society.E.g. shaking hands with someone when meeting them
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Describe 'Social Mores'?
good ways of behaving learnt from differences or right and wrong baced upon us by society. E.g. It is not considered acceptable or mainstream to abuse drugs
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What is 'Demographic change'?
The UK population (demographic structure) has changed dramatically in the last 50-60 years. It is now a much more multi-ethnic one. These changes have led to significant changes in behaviour and how we view the law. E.g. Racial Discrimination
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What is 'Cultural change'?
The ideas and social behaviour of a particular group of people or society is known as ‘culture’. These ideas change as culture changes and develops, which ultimately affects the collective understanding of crime and policy. E.g. Homosexuality
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What are 'Newspaper campaigns'?
Using newspapers in campaigns to change the law can be an effective way of mobilising public opinion so that the government takes action. E.g. Sarah's Law and Telegraph&Argus
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What are 'Individual campaigns'?
Many campaigns are later taken on by newspapers, politicians and groups but start with a lone individual, who feels strongly enough about a particular policy to take action themselves. E.g. Clare's Law and Ann Ming
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What are 'Pressure group campaigns'?
Pressure groups are organisations that try to influence government policies in the interest of a particular case. They play an important role in policy making by gaining public support. E.g. Snowdrop and Inquest (Grenfell)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Describe 'Formal Policy'?


Policies which are given and created by the law enforcement and judicial system for example prison and community service.

Card 3


What are Eugenics?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is 'Antabuse'?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Describe 'Sterilisation'?


Preview of the front of card 5
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