Witte and Stolypin

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Name Witte's six aims
Develop heavy industry, expansion of railways, Obtain foreign loans, improve stability of the rouble, high tariffs on foreign goods, higher taxation
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What happened in Russia in the 1880s, and what were the main causes for this?
'The great spurt': Russian industry grew rapidly, especially due to increased output of coal from the Ukraine and oil from the Caucasus. Cloth production increased by two thirds
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What did Witte believe about the railway?
That modernisation of the Russian economy ultimately depended on developing an effective railway system
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Between which years was there a large increase in railway lines?
1881 and 1914
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Witte negotiated large loans and investments from abroad; especially with which country?
France
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Who came to Russia?
Many foreign engineers and industrialists
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What did the improved stability of the rouble encourage?
International investment in Russia
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What did high tariffs on foreign goods encourage?
Encouraged people to 'buy Russian'
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How did Witte ensure that more money was coming into the treasury?
By imposing high taxes and heavy interest rates
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What did Witte neglect?
Russia's agricultural needs and vital areas such as light engineering
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What did Witte hope that the Trans-Siberian railway would improve?
Migration of workers
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What was increased production due to, rather than the Trans-Siberian railway?
The growth in population
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By which year were part so of the Trans-Siberian railway still unfinished?
1916
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What did Witte make Russia too dependent on?
Foreign loans and investments
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What did traders to to keep pace with the increased value of the rouble?
Introduced higher prices
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What was the issue with placing higher tariffs on foreign goods?
Goods became scarcer so prices rose; worker's wages were not increased to compensate
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What did higher taxation lead to?
Potential unrest and peasants having to sell more grain to pay taxes
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Name five of Stolypin's aims
De-revolutionize the peasantry, improve efficiency of agriculture, create a prosperous layer of peasants, increase peasant land ownership,re-settlement schemes
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What appeased the peasants?
The government's announcement that outstanding repayments would be cancelled
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What were farmers encouraged to replace the inefficient ***** system with?
Fenced fields which were used in western Europe
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What were peasants encouraged to abandon and what did this lead to?
Were encouraged to farm individually instead of groupin in 'obschina' - this lead to peasants making a bit more money (shown by tax returns)
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Why could Stolyin 'wager on the strong'?
There was indeed a layer of strong peasant famers
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What was established to provide funds for the independent peasants to buy their land?
A special land bank
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What was the aim of resettlement schemes?
To populate remoter areas, such as Siberia, and turn them into food-growing areas
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What prevented most peasants from embracing progressive change?
Their conservatism
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What did peasants do in 1917 to show discontent?
Seized properties of Stolypin farmers
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What was still widespread in 1914?
The ***** system
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Who was affected negatively by the wager on the strong?
Weak peasants
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What were most peasants reluctant to do?
Leave the safety of the commune for the uncertainty of individual farming
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How many years did Stolypin say he needed for his 'wager on the strong' to become effective?
20
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How many years did Russia have before Stolypin's assassination and how many before the war?
5, 8
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Card 2

Front

What happened in Russia in the 1880s, and what were the main causes for this?

Back

'The great spurt': Russian industry grew rapidly, especially due to increased output of coal from the Ukraine and oil from the Caucasus. Cloth production increased by two thirds

Card 3

Front

What did Witte believe about the railway?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Between which years was there a large increase in railway lines?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Witte negotiated large loans and investments from abroad; especially with which country?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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