when did witchcraft become an exceptional crime?
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what is a popular method of torture in Europe?
2 of 76
what was used to gain confession in England?
sleep deprivation
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what is popular culture?
the beliefs, values, customs and practices belonging to the vast majority of Europeans
4 of 76
what invention evolved popular cultures quicker?
the printing press
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what was significant about the North Berwick witch trials?
king James VI was heavily involved
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How was witch craft in Scotland usually dealt with before 1563?
dealt with ecclesiastical courts
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what was notable about the 1563 witchcraft act?
it was more serve than the act made the previous year in England, it called for the death in all witchcraft cases
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what were the specifics of the 1563 witchcraft act?
killing people punishable by death, acts of witchcraft that caused damage of people to find goods or invoke love would result in a 1 year prison sentence for the first offence, second offence straight to death
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what was the religious situation in Scotland in the 16th century?
calvinists in power trying to remove elements of catholicism, was opposed by many Scots and was therefore not fully removed.
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how much influence did the Scottish clergy have over the secular government?
bishops were appointed by the crown, it was the crowns way of influencing the church
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what was the Kirks attitude towards witch craft?
the general assembly of the kirk was putting pressure on the government to establish a godly state by prosecuting witches
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what were the 3 main types of secular courts in Scotland?
judicary courts, circuit courts and regality courts
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what was the court of judicary?
it was sat in Edinburgh and was the highest court
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what were the circuit courts?
held in various shires and judges from the central courts sat at them
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what were the regality courts?
powers from the crown, tried serious crimes, same powers as the circuit court, ran by a local landowner
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what were the difference between the English and the Scottish courts that impacted the prosecution of witches
the conviction rates of the regality courts were often higher than that of the circuit or the judicary. torture was only legal if it was authorised by the privy council but there was many cases of it being useed illegally
17 of 76
how did the socio economic context affect Scotland?
rural population, largely subsistence farming which meant that they were vulnerable to poor harvests, late 16th century there were a succession of poor harvests which led to an atmosphere of general anxiety
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what characteristics of James the IV had an impact on the Scottish witchcraft cases?
fearful and suspicious because of assassination attempts in childhood, strong aversion to Catholicism
19 of 76
how far did James's stay in Denmark influence his view of witchcraft?
meeting with Niels Hemmingsen may have introduced james to the ideas of sabbats and pacts, but recent research suggests that this was not the case
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when was Gilly duncan arrested?
november 1590
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what was the significance of Gilly Duncans confessions?
she claimed to be 1 of 200 witches in North Berwick. her accomplices varied from a schoolmaster to the earl of bothwell
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what was James VI's involvement in the Lotharian trials in 1590?
he was present at the examinations of the main suspects.
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what was the significance of the Scottish 1591 commission?
privy council authorised the use of torture
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what was the significance of the Scottish 1592 commission?
commissioners could empower local leaders to investigate a witch hunt
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in which European countries were the highest number of victims prosecuted?
in France and Belgium 2000 witches between 1580-1620, Germany had 2000 victims between 1570-1630
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In which European countries were there pre-reformation persecutions
Italy, Switzerland and France
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Once the initial accusation was made who took control of the witch hunts?
Official Judges
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What was the main characteristic of the large witch hunts?
people were gripped by a mood of profound fear of: closest friends were witches, their communities were captive to diabolical power and they would be falsely accused
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what was the main reason why small witch hunts ended
the accused people were executed
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what was usually the end of large scale witch hunts?
judges and government officials became sceptical, suspicions arose when a higher percentage of the rich were being accused
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why was the carolina legal code not that effective in the holy roman empire?
there were no travelling judges to make sure the code was upheld. there were also no procedures for regular appeals to the imperial supreme court at speyer
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what were local courts required to consult and why?
law faculty of local university
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what was the effect of consulting the university?
consultation with learned jurists helped to introduce diabolical ideas to local magistrates
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According to Levack what helps to explain why the largest witch hunts took place in Germany?
Judges had jurisdiction over small areas, German had a scope of freedom in handling witch craft cases
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for witch hunting purposes what can Germany be divided into?
the North East which had less witch prosecutions, and the South West where there were many large scale witch hunts
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Where in Germany was witch hunting particularly prominent?
Wurzburg, Bamberg, Trier and Bavaria
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why were the economic conditions a reason for the wave of witch hunts in the early 1600s?
bad weather caused a number of crop failures combined with famine and diseases demanded more prosecutions. local people blamed the bad weather on the devil and his agents
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What did the Franconian witches confess to?
they were able to make frost out the childrens fat, flying through the air and dropping poison on the crops until everything was frozen
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how significant was the counter-reformation zeal?
the most terrible witch hunts were conducted by the catholic prince bishops but not all catholic states persecuted witches
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where is an example where counter reformation zeal was not responsible for a large scale witch hunt in Germany?
Lutheran Duchie of Mecklenburg, 2000 executed out of a population of 200,000
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when were the Trier witch hunts?
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what were the causes of the witch hunts in trier?
poor harvests, power struggle between town council and prince bishop and jesuit college
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who was the key figure accused of witch craft in trier?
Dr dietrich flade, councillor to the prince bishop
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why were the rich and the powerful being accused of witch craft in Trier?
for political and social gain, also because the council could take their belongings
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what were the total number of witches killed in Trier?
46 of 76
who did the witch hunting in Bamberg begin under?
prince bishop johann gottfried von aschhausen
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what was johann gotfried aiming to do?
he wanted to re-catholicise the area
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how many witches were killed under Gotfried?
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who was the main prosecutor of witches in Bamberg?
Prince Bishop von Dornhiem, who was nicknamed the witch bishop
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how many witches were killed under Von Dornheim?
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what was Von Dornheim famous for?
he built witch houses, these would hold up to 40 witches and contained a torture room
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what were some of the reasons for the persecution of witches in the 16th and 17th century?
epidemics, reformation and counter reformation, poor harvests, rising pop, religious authorities blaming misfortune on witchcraft, legal practise e.g. torture.
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what was the rate of conviction where torture was used?
54 of 76
what was the rate of conviction where torture was not used?
55 of 76
what was the Inquisition?
a tribunal set up to preserve Catholic supremacy by suppressing heresy by means of formally organised persecution
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what affect did the inquisition have on witch craft?
it changed christian society to a persecution society which meant that they took an aggressive stance towards minorities such as witches
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what is maleficium?
a harm committed by magic
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what law was passed in salem in 1641?
if any man or woman be a witch they shall be put to death
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what is a theocracy?
this is where god is regarded as the sole sovereign and the laws of the realm are seen as divine commands
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when was king williams war?
61 of 76
what did the putnams want?
they wanted to sever ties between salem town and village. they were also involved in more subsistence farming
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what did the porters want?
they wanted closer ties between the town and the village. they were also seen as more entrepreneurial.
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who did the putnams appoint minster in 1681?
George Burroughs
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who replaced George Burroughs in 1682?
Deodat Lawson
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who became the minister of salem village in 1689?
Samuel Parris
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who was Samuel Parris supported by?
the putnams
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who were the initial girls in salem who were bewitched?
Betty Parris and Abigail Williams
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who were the first witches accused in salem?
Sarah good, Sarah Osborne and Tituba
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what was significant about the first three women accused in Salem
tituba was a slave and therefore an outsider plus she was of native american decent, Good was a beggar, Osborne was old and rarely attended church
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who created the court of oyer and terminer?
william phips
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why did witch hunting in salem come to an end?
the was opposition from many church leaders and the action of governor phips to delay the trial
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when was the reformation?
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when was the 30 years war?
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what did Londons population rise from and to in this period?
60 thousand to 600,000
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what was the reason for Londons rise in population?
people from towns and villages gravitating towards them in hope of a better life
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