Wilhelmine Germany 1890-1914: Economy, Society and Domestic Politics

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Between 1870 and 1913 how much did the productive capacity of Germany increase?
Eightfold
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When did German steel production overtake Britain's?
1893
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When did Germany's iron and steel exports exceed Britain's?
1910
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What natural advantages did Germany have in achieving their chemical mastery?
Extraordinarily rich deposit of potassium salts at Strassfurt and a high standard of scientific knowledge
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What % of the world exports of dyestuffs did Germany account for by 1900?
90%
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In 1913 how much of the world's electrical output did the German electrical industry provide?
1/3
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The process of 'industrialisation' is easily recognisable by which standard features?
the movement from country to town, the concentration of production in fewer and larger units, the manufacture for market instead of subsistence, the tendency of society to divide into those who provide the capital and those who provide labour
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How long did Germany take to industrialise?
40 years
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How did Germany's rapid industrialisation negatively affect society?
It gave less chance for mental adjustment to new conditions, for permeating society with ideas of a new type of man
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What was the outcome of the wars of unification on society?
they reinforced the position of the army, landowners, the monarchy and the Prussian constitution
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What was the problem with industrialisation and the nature of Germany society?
the stratification of an older epoch were firmly implanted in German society, the individualistic materialism preached by Britain or USA
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What % of people moved to the cities?
40%
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Germany's railway network increased from 41,800km in 1890 to...
... 59,000km in 1910
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By what year were more Germans employed in industry than agriculture?
1890
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What was the Youth Movement? when did it begin?
1897, a movement which was both reactionary and nationalist, an overwhelmingly male phenomenon that gathered 1,000s of followers by 1913
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What roles did the Kaiser of Germany have?
he appointed the chancellor, had the power to dissolve the reichstag, could direct German foreign policy, commanded the armed forces, guarded the constitution
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What was the role of the Chancellor?
shaped the framework of policies, appointed all state secretaries, not accountable to reichstag
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Was the Imperial Gov. responsible to the Reichstag?
no
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What was the problem with the Bundesrat?
It had the ability yo reject any military or constitutional issue with just 14 votes, Prussia held 17 seats
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By 1912 which Party was in majority in the Reichstag?
the SPD
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What was the Pan-German League committed to?
an expansionist foreign policy to achieve a world role for Germany
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What was the German Colonial League concerned with?
Acquiring colonies. It had a role in ruling various parts of the empire
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What did Kaiser Wilhelm II think of the Reichstag?
It was an "apehouse"
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What is Sammlungspolitik? What was von Bulows aim?
the politics of concentration. He aimed to build an alliance of conservative interests in the Reich,
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In Hamburg in 1892, how many died over a ten-week period from cholera?
8,600
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The introduction of a diptheria serum in the 1890s cut the number of young children dying by how much?
1/2
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By 1914 how many members did the Agrarian League have?
1/3 of a million
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When was the Sickness Insurance Law amended? and why?
1903, to give longer and more generous help to workers in ill health; 26 weeks rather than 13
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What was the issue that the 'Hottentot' election fought on? What was the significance of the election?
Nationalism, the Centre Party and the SPD voted down the new railway in Africa showing a favour of domestic policy, Bulows position is strengthened by having the support of the majority in the Reichstag
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What was the significance of the Daily Telegraph affair?
End of the Kaisers 'personal rule' and his confidence in Bulow, the Reichstag dropped the issue without demanding restraint on the Kaiser's power, did they want constitutional change?
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What was the significance of the Zabern Affair?
it highlighted the limits of the Reichstag's influence: their vote of no confidence was ignored by the Chancellor, political parties showed themselves to be too timid
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What was the problem with Prussia's voting system?
It was archaic; electors were disproportionately divided into three classes based on the amount of tax they paid, allowing the landed aristocracy to have more political influence
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What was Germany's annual average growth?
4.5%
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What policy was pursued by German banks?
They provided generous long-term loans, leading banks to become directly involved in industry creating a close partnership between the banking and commercial sectors of the economy
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What is a cartel?
An arrangement between businesses to control the level of production and prices. The effect creates a joint monopoly.
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What was the negative effect that cartels had on German economy?
By restricting the entry of new manufacturers, they reduced competition and maintained artificially high prices.
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Which political pressure group exemplified the rise in radical nationalism?
the Pan-German league which gained much support at the turn of the century
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How much did the average wage increase between 1895 and 1913?
25%
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What did historian Wehler say that the Kaiserreich was suffering from?
"a permanent crisis of the state behind its facade of high-handed leadership"
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Who did Structuralists believe actually ran Germany?
Traditional elites; Army, Civil Service, Junkers, Judiciary, Diplomatic Service
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The Reichstag election turn-outs increased substantially from 50% in 1871 to...
... 85% in 1912
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When was accident insurance extended to new occupations?
1900
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By 1898 how many members did the Navy League have?
1M
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When did Bethmann propose reforms to Prussia's voting system?
1910
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What did the Imperial Insurance Code do?
Consolidated all previous workers' insurance laws and amended provisions
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When was accident insurance extended to new occupations?
1900
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What social legislation was passed in 1908?
Law restricting the ours of factory work to be carried out by young people
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After 1908 how many hours could 14-16 year olds work a day?
10 hours
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In the 1908 election to the Prussian landtag how what % of the vote did the Conservatives win? And, how many seats did this translate to?
16% - 212 seats
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In the 1908 election to the Prussian landtag how what % of the vote did the SPD win? And, how many seats did this translate to?
23% - 7
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In 1913 what % were employed in agriculture?
34%
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During the second reich agricultural yield increased and productivity was better than that of which countries?
UK, France, USA and Russia
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When did German steel production overtake Britain's?

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1893

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When did Germany's iron and steel exports exceed Britain's?

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Card 4

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What natural advantages did Germany have in achieving their chemical mastery?

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Card 5

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What % of the world exports of dyestuffs did Germany account for by 1900?

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