Why was there so much racial inequality in the USA between 1929 and 1945?

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  • Created on: 29-04-14 18:21
What were the segregation laws called in southern USA?
Jim Crow Laws
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What were the Jim Crow laws?
laws which introduced segregation and discrimination against black Americans in the south.
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Was there segregation laws in north America?
No but racism was still commonplace.
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What was the name given to the movement of black Americans from the south to northern cities during the 1920s
The Great Migration
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What was the name given to areas black people lived in the cities?
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What music genre brought fame to black musicians and singers?
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Harlem, New york became the centre of what movement for black artists?
Harlem Renaissance
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Give an example of a famous black artist during the 1920/30s?
Louis Armstrong/ Bessie Smith
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What does NAACP stand for?
National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People
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When was the NAACP formed and who by?
Formed in 1909 by William Du Bois
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What did the NAACP do?
Fight against racial injustice throughout the 1930s and 1940s using the legal system
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What did the NAACP do during the 1920s?
Campaigned against lynching and were the main opponent of the KKk
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What did the NAACP do during the 1930s?
Successfully blocked the nomination of Judge John Parker, a known racist, to be appointed to the Supreme Court.
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What did the NAACP do during the war?
Pressured Roosevelt into ordering a non-discrimnatory policy in war-related industries and federal governemnt
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Who was the NAACP lawyer?
Thurgood Marshall
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In what area did the NAACP successfully manage to get the Supreme Court to rule equality in?
Graduate education
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Who were the KKK?
The Klu Klux Klan were a white supremacist group whose members had to be WASPs
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Who were the KKK anti?
Communists, Jewish, Catholic and all foreigners
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Give examples of acts of intimidation the KKK used?
Cross burning, beatings, mutilation, castration, tar and feathering and lynching.
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What saying best described black people in terms of employment?
'the last to be hired, the first to be fired'
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How many black people were jobless in 1932?
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How many black sharecroppers and farmers were forced off land?
2 million
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What was the percentage of unemployment among black people in norther cities?
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How much relief did black people claim in comparison to white people during the depression?
3 times
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How many jobs and training did the New deal provide for Black People?
1 million jobs and 500,000 training
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The PWA (Public Works Administration) did what to help Black Americans?
Allocated funds for the building of black hospitals, universities and housing projects
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What percentage of aid did the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA)
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How many were employed by the government in 1945?
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What bill did FDR fail to support for the benefit of Black People?
Anti-lynching bill
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What was the name given to black-only units in WWII?
Jim Crow Army
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Before 1944, what role were black soldiers only given during the war?
used to only transporty suppklies or as cooks and labourers
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What did the navy only accept black men as?
Mess men (people who worked in the canteens)
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By the end of the war how many pilots were there?
1000 black pilots
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What did President Truman in 1948 in response to the contributions of Black Americans in WWII?
Banned 'separate but equal' recruiting, training and service in the army, airforce, navy and Marine Corps
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In 1941 what did President Roosevelt set up for the benefit of black people?
Fair employment Practices Committee which banned discrimination against black Americans in those factories used y the governemtn.
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In 1944 how many black people were working in factories?
2 million
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What campaign did black Americans begin after the war?
Double V campaign - Victory at home and Victory over fascism abroad
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How much did the membership of NAACP rise during the war?
50,000 to 450,000
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In 1946, what did President Truman set up as part of his 'Fair Deal Programme'?
Civil Rights Committee - unable to implement recommendations due to opposition.
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In 1952 how many American states had segregated schools?
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In 1952, what court case opened which fought the rights of a Black girl's rights?
Brown Vs Topeka Board of Education (Oliver Brown and the NAACP)
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In May 1954, what did the Supreme court rule?
racial segregation in public schools went against the US constitution.
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When did the the Little Rock 9 enter the white-only Central High School in Little Rock?
September 1957
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Who was the Governor of Arkansas and how did he respond o the little rock 9?
Orval Faubus, surrounded the school with National Guardsmen to prevent the 9 students for entering
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How did the President Eisenhower respond to the Little rock 9?
Sent 1000 federal troops of the 101st Airbourne Division to protect the students for the rest of the school year
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How was the incident at Little Rick 9 important?
It shows how the president could and would enforce court orders with the federal troops. 2. Brought publicity to the injustices of segregation
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In1964, what percentage of children attended multi-racial schools in the southern states?
Fewer than 2%
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In 1962, who was the Black American student who was prevented from entering what university?
In 1962, James Meredith was prevented from enrolling to the University of Mississippi by the Governor of Mississippi.
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How did JFK handle the issue of James Meredith?
He sent 2000 troops after riots broke out.
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How many soldiers remained with James Meredith for the rest of his time at university?
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What was the initial Montgomery local law on transport?
African Americans had to sit at the back of the bus and had to give up their seats if a white person wanted it,
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What happened in the 1st of December 1955 in Montgomery Alabama?
Rosa Parks, Civil rights Activist, refused to give up her seat and was arrested and convicted of breaking the bus laws.
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Local civil rights activists in Montgomery Alabama set up what organisation? And what did they call this?
The Montgomery Improvement Association which was led by Martin Luther King
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What did the MIA set up in response to Rosa Park's arrest?
They boycotted the buses and organised private transport for people.
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In 1956 what did the Supreme court conclude in response to the Montgomery bus laws?
Supreme court ruled the Montgomery bus laws as illegal.
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The Montgomery bus boycott was seen as the start of what?
The beginning of non-violent mass protest by the civil rights movement.
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What was a common method of non-violent protest which began in February 1960?
Sit- ins in Greensboro, North Carolina
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By August 1961, how many participates did the sit-ins attract? How man were arrested as a result?
70,000 participants and resulted inver 3000 arrested
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In 1961, what did the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) form as part of a direct protest in southern states?
Freedom rides
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When was the first freedom ride journey?
Began at Washington DC on 4th May 1961 with a plan travelling down to New Orleans.
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Give examples of incidents where freedom riders met hostile recption?
1. Anniston, Alabama a bus was attatacked and burnt 2. Montgomery, white racists beat up riders 3. Mississippi, 27 freedom riders were failed for 67 days
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By September 1961, how many students had participated, and how many of these were arrested?
70,000 participants and 3,600 were arrested.
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Who managed to get the Interstae Commerce Committee to end segregation in all bus and rail stations and airports?
Attorney general Robert Kennedy
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What were the 8 key features of Martin Luther King's significance to the Civil Rights Campaign?
1. Bus Boycott 1955 2. Southern Christian Leadership Conference 3. Birmingham March 1963 4. March on Washington, August 1963 5. Nobel Peace Prize Award, 1964 6. Selma to Birmingham marches, 1965 7. Assassination 8. Beliefs and Methods
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What did the SCLC challenge the city of Birmingham in 1963?
For their decision to close its recreation facilities in order to avoid de-segregation.
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What was the result on the Birmingham march in 1963?
King was arrested and sent to jail. President Kennedy sent troops and Birmingham was forced to de-segregate
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What was the purpose of the March in Washington 1963?
Pressurise President Kennedy to draft the legalisation of the Civil rights Act.
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What was the purpose of the Selma to Birmingham marches in March 1965?
Demanding voting rights
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When was MLK assassinated and who by?
April 1968 by white racist James Earl Ray
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What was Malcom X's beliefs about black people in the USA?
Rejected King's peaceful methods and violence could be justified to secure a separate black nation.
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Who were Malcom X's common supporters?
Young People
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IN 1964, Malcom X left the Nation of Islam and formed what two groups?
1. black nationalist Organisation of Afro-American Unity 2. Muslim Mosque Inc
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What did Malcom X encourage?
The self-esteem of black Americans which became the foundation for the radical movements Black Power and Black Pathers.
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How did the Black power come to being?
It emerged out of the anger and frustration expressed by young black Americans over hgih unemployment and poverty.
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Who was the leader of the Black power movement?
Stokely Carmichael
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Stokely Carmichael became the chairman of what organisation?
SNCC - Student Non-violent coordination Committee
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What slogan did the black power movement adopt?
Black is Beautiful
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In 1968 what movement did Stokely Carmichael join?
The Blank Panthers
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Who were the Blank Panthers?
1. Set up in 1966 by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton 2. Members wore uniforms 3. Militant 4. Aimed for a socialist society
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In 1968, who were the two athletes who wore a single black glove and gave the clenched fist salute in the Mexico City Olympics?
Tommie Smith and John Carlos
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What were the main 3 features of the Civil Rights Act 1964?
1. Racial Discrimination banned in employment 2. Black Students given equal opportunities - including money form government 3. Equal Employment Opportunities commission set up to investigate complaints of discrimination.
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What were the 2 main features of the voting Rights Act, 1965?
1. Stopped racial discrimination over the right to vote 2. Ended literacy tests
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What did the Supreme Court rule in 1967?
Laws banning interracial marriages were unconstitutional
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What was the Fair Housing Act, 1968?
Made racial Discrimination illegal in the property market
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What was the cost of damage of the riots in the Watts district of Los Angeles in August 1965?
$40 million
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How many riots were there in the summer of 1969?
125 cities
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LBJ ordered an enquiry and the Kerner Report (1969) concluded what?
Racism was deeply embedded in American Society
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What was the percentage of black americans who had left high school with a high school diploma?
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What was the percentage of black Americans with university degrees?
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What was the percentage of black Americans living in the suburbs of major cities (ghettos)?
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What was the unemployment rate like for black American in comparison to white Americans?
Unemployment for black Americans (14%) was more than double than white Americans (6%)
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What happened to Rodney King?
A black American who was beaten by police who was arresting him, which caused mass riots in LA
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In 1989, who became the first black American to become Chairman of the Joint Chief of staff?
Colin Powell
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In 1997, who became the first black American to win the Masters Golf tournament?
Tiger Woods
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Which artist became known for selling the best album of all time?
Michael Jackson 'Thriller'
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Card 2


What were the Jim Crow laws?


laws which introduced segregation and discrimination against black Americans in the south.

Card 3


Was there segregation laws in north America?


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Card 4


What was the name given to the movement of black Americans from the south to northern cities during the 1920s


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Card 5


What was the name given to areas black people lived in the cities?


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