Who, What and Where? From Tsarist Russia to Stalin's Death

Flashcards of people, places, events and key terminology for Edexcel units: 'Russia in Revolution 1881-1924' and 'Stalin's Russia 1924-1953'

NB: the dates on the cards of the people refer to the dates they were active

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Tsar Alexander II (1855-1881)
Deeply influenced by Russia's defeat in the Crimean War, he embarked on extensive reforms. He emancipated the serfs as well as reforming the legal system, armed forces and local government. He was assassinated by an extremist group.
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The Zemstva Reform (1864)
For the first time in Russian history, an elective form of government had been created. Zemstva had responsibility for education and road building, they were elected by the educated and wealthy
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Trail by Jury (1870)
Previously, trails were decided by a judge appointed by the Provincial Governor. Now, they were decided by juries of ordinary Russians
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Procurator of the Holy Synod Konstantin Pobedonostsev (1880-1907)
A leading figure of conservatism and autocracy, he was the leading official on religious policy. He tutored Alex II and Nicholas II when they were children
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Finance Minister Ivan Vyshnegradsky (1887-1892)
Previously a scientist when he was appointed he had nearly a million doubles. He perused a policy of settlement of the budget deficit, stronger government interference in the railways and monetary reform
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Tsar Nicholas II (1868-1918)
A quiet, shy man who was eventually dominated by his German wife. He was tutored by Pobedonostsev but did very little except wait to become Tsar. He was the last Tsar of Russia
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Finance Minister Count Sergei Witte (1892-1903)
During his term in office, Russia saw unprecedented financial growth. His reforms included: building the trans_Siberian railway,production of capital goods and inward investment from France, Belgium and Britain
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Social Revolutionary Viktor Chernov (1890-1921)
Became editor of the newspaper Revolutionary Russia and was elected to the Second Duma before becoming leader of the SRs. He was minister of agriculture in the provisional government and the last Chairman of the Consituent Assembly in January1918.
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Karl Marx (1818-1883)
Founder of Marxism, worked closely with Engels to develop The Communist Manifesto which explained class struggle. He believed Russia was the least likely country to experience Communist revolution as it wasn't industrial
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Jewish Bund
Popular name for the General Jewish Labour Union, a political faction in the SDP. It wanted a socialist Russia where anti-Semitism was abolished
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Menshevik Yuli Martov (1903-1912)
Originally member of a Jewish Bind, he was a close friend of Lenin and helped publish Iskra. He opposed Lenin's idea at the 2nd Party Congress and left to lead the Menshevik faction. He supported reunification in 1905 but seperated again in 1907
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Russian Calendar (pre-1918)
The Julian calendar was used which was 13 days behind the Georgian calendar used by the rest of Europe
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Father George Gapon (1898-1906)
He organised assemblies across St. Petersburg to defend workers' rights. He led to protest Bloody Sunday and after this he worked for the Okhrana. He was accused of being a double agent and hanged on this charge
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Leon Trotsky (1902-1940)
Was excited to Siberia but escaped to join the Social Democrats, he helped Lenin to the Bolshevik Revolution. He was a successful commander in the War. Following Lenin's death and the subsequent leadership struggle he went into hiding and was killed
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Prime Minister Peter Stolypin (1906-1911)
Known for his attempts to battle revolutionary groups, he hoped to stem peasant unrest. He cleverly manipulated the Duma to achieve a majority and his educational and land reforms modernised Russia. He was assassinated in Kiev by an SR
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First Duma
The Duma of Public Anger, April-June 1906
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Second Duma
February-June 1907
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Third Duma
The Duma of Lords and Lackeys, November 1907-June 1912
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Fourth Duma
November 1912-August 1914
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The Progressive Bloc
A group with the Duma who wished to see greater parliamentary control of the government. Members of this were amongst those who persuaded the Tsar to abdicate in 1917
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Starets Gregory Rasputin (1905-1916)
Had the ability to 'dude's the Tsarevich which gave home considerable influence over Tsarina Alexandra. There were many rumours about a possible affair with the Tsarina. He was murdered by Russian novels in 1916
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General Lavr Kornilov (1905-1918)
Served during the Russo-Japanese war and was head of the Petrograd Garrison after the February Revolution.His attempt to restore order in Petrograd was misinterpreted as an attempt to seize power.
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Bolshevik Lev Kamenev (1907-1936)
In exile with Lenin 1907-1914, he opposed the October Revolution and printed his opposition in the press. This alerted the Provisional Government to the possibility of coup d'etat
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Bolshevik Gregory Zinoviev (1903-1936)
In excile with Lenin 1907-1914, openly opposed the October Revolution and resigned from Lenin's government after proposed coalitions with the Left SRs
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General Anton Deniken
Took part in the Kornilov Affair against the Bolsheviks. After the October Revolution he organised the White armies but failed to co-operative with other leaders which led to his defeat
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The Cheka (1917-1922)
A terror police force created by Lenin, it arrested, imprisoned and executed political opponents and ran the Gulags. It has been calculated as responsible for 500,000 deaths
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Admiral Kolchak (1903-1920)
In the Civil War he formed a White government and declared himself Supreme Rular of Russia. He was captured by the Czech Legionand handed over to the Bolsheviks who executed him
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White Leader Nikolai Yudenich (1914-1933)
Commanded White forces and made an unsucessful attack on Petrograd in 1919
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Politburo
Main decision making committee of the Communism Party
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Bolsheviks and Mensheviks (1903-)
During the SD Party Congress, it split into to factions: Bolsheviks (meaning majority) and Mensheviks. The Bolsheviks favoured Lenin's ideas whilst the Mensheviks rejected them in favour of traditional Marxism
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Communist and Leader Lenin (1903-1923)
Led the Bolshevik faction of the SDs and became the first Communist leader of Russia after returning from exile in 1917
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Bourgeoisie
Upper classes, often wealthy factory owners
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Proletariat
Working classes,often factory workers
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Comintern (1919-1935)
Its role was to ferment Communism abroad as well as encourage revolution. It held 7 world congresses to provoke Communism all over the world
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Lenin's Testament (1923)
Aimed to point out the dangers of a split party and suggested measures to prevent one. He praise Trotsky, Stalin and Bukharin but refrained from specifying who should replace him as leader
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Communist Yevgeni Preobrazhensky (1903-1937)
Responsible for ordering the death of Tsar Nicholas II, became a leading figure in Left Opposition but joined with Stalin in the 1930s. Stalin never forgot his associations with Trotsky and ordered him to be executed
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The Lenin Enrolment (1923)
Initiated by Stalin, it made sure the Communist Part kept its working class character by admitting any workers. This caused increased loyalty to Stalin
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Kulaks
Characterised by their ownership of large farms and comparative wealth. Labelled as Capitalists because they employed other people to work on their land
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The Cult of Lenin
Designed to appeal to ordinary Russians who couldn't grasp political ideology. It reworked imagery of traditional religion into images of Lenin and his body embalmed and put on display for pilgrims
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Communist Tomsky (1904-1936)
His influence stemmed from the fact that he wad General Secretary for Labour. In the 1920s he supported the NEP and was an important ally in the Politburo
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Communist Rykov (1903-1938)
After Lenin's death, he became one of the most senior Party members and supported Bukharin's NEP
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Machine Tractor Stations
Officially provided machinery and trading. However, exercised control over collective farms by spying on peasants and punishing troublemakers
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Komsomol (1922)
The Communist Union of Youth, it catered for young people aged 14-28
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Chairman of Leningrad Sergei Kirov (1927-1934)
Committed supporter of commoditization and First Five Year Plan. Became unofficial leader of a group of moderates who had no intention of replacing Stalin. He was highly popular and travelled the country unguarded
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Head of the NKVD Genrikh Yagoda (1934-1938)
Loved gambling, womanizing and luxury. He was responsible for implementing a new wave of political terror and helped Stalin turn on the members of the Party.
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Head of the NKVD Nicolai Tragic (1936-1939)
Replaced Yagoda. Aimed to fulfilling Stalin's targets for arrest, executions and exiles. He was arrested and shot in a prison he commissioned himself.
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Head of the NKVD Lavrenti Beria (1938-1953)
Had previously served the Communist Regeime in Georgia. After becoming Head of the NKVD he remained at the top of Soviet politics until Stalin's death
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Fascist Leader Adolph Hitler (1933-1945)
His vision for Germany was to create a Master Race, increase territory and execute undesirables
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

For the first time in Russian history, an elective form of government had been created. Zemstva had responsibility for education and road building, they were elected by the educated and wealthy

Back

The Zemstva Reform (1864)

Card 3

Front

Previously, trails were decided by a judge appointed by the Provincial Governor. Now, they were decided by juries of ordinary Russians

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A leading figure of conservatism and autocracy, he was the leading official on religious policy. He tutored Alex II and Nicholas II when they were children

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Previously a scientist when he was appointed he had nearly a million doubles. He perused a policy of settlement of the budget deficit, stronger government interference in the railways and monetary reform

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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