Sociologists for beliefs in society

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  • Created by: Hollie
  • Created on: 09-05-14 22:32
Weber (secularisation)
Disenchantment - loss of magic due to science replacing religion in answering many questions about the world. However, it's argued that many have become disenchanted from science and are turning back to religion for answers. (NRM)
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Bellah
Civil Religion - 'universal religion of the nation'. Most American's share common religious characteristics expressed through beliefs, symbols and rituals e.g. Independence Day and Thanksgiving.
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Gould (science and religion)
Science and religion are separate and can work together. Science can provide knowledge whereas religion can provide moral guidance. Dawkins argues that Gould's just trying to appease powerful religious groups.
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Danielle Hervieu-Leger
Spiritual Shopping - people have the ability to pick and choose a religion that 'fits' them. The idea of being able to 'pick 'n' mix' religions. Cultural amnesia - religious beliefs are not being passed down generations so children are less religious
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Modool et al. (ethnicity and religion)
Policy Studies Institute Survey: found that there's an overall decline in the importance of religion for all main religious groups. Few second generation respondents attend a place of worship.
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Woodhead (gender and religion)
Religion is not always patriarchal. There are forms or 'religious feminism' where women use religion to gain freedom and respect. Women get support from their churches and says that man should respect and care for women.
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Parsons (secularisation)
Religious disengagement from society. A process of specialisation (the church is no longer running institutes in society such as education)
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Maduro
The relative autonomy of religion. Religion can be a revolutionary force that brings about social change.
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Heelas (age and religion)
People become more religious as they get older. This could be due to illness or approaching death and so they're looking for comfort. This leads to an ageing church population
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Horton (science and religion)
Believes in open and closed systems. Open: science - can be criticised and disproved. Closed: religion - claims cannot be overturned.
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Hoffman and Miller (gender and religion)
Identify two reasons why women are more religious than men: differential socialisation and social roles of women. Women view God as a god of love, comfort and forgiveness whereas men see a god of power and control.
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Parsons
Religion and the value consensus. Religion provides guidelines for human actions eg. laws originate from the Ten Commandments and therefore religion provides the basis for many norms and values in society.
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Weber (social change)
Calvinism contributed to the rise of capitalism therefore religion causes social change.
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Bibby
Found that approximately 25% of Canadians regularly attended church but 80% claimed that they believed/were religious.
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Archer (ethnicity and religion)
A strong Muslim identity provides an alternative to the gang and drug culture of the street. It's a way to resist the stereotypes and provide a positive role model.
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El Sadawi (gender and religion)
Religion itself isn't oppressive; it's the fact that religion is male dominated which is the problem. This is due to how many religious scriptures are written or interpreted by men.
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Troeltsch
Churches: (inter)national membership, hierarchal, monopoly of truth, little formal commitment required eg. Islam. Sects: local/national membership, voluntary, monopoly of truth, exceptional commitment required eg. Mormons
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Grace Davie
Belief without belonging: people don't have to belong to a church etc. to believe in God. Vicarious religion: a small number of clergy practice religion on behalf of wider society.
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Bird (ethnicity and religion)
Explains high levels of religiosity with five reasons why ethnic minorities are more likely to be religious: socialisation, coping with oppression, maintaining cultural identity, sense of community and originating from a place of high religiosity.
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Haddaway et al.
Conducted a study and found that more people claimed to attend church or a place of worship than were actually attending.
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Gellner (science and religion)
Science is superior to religion.
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Voas and Crockett (age and religion)
The ageing effect - people return to religion as they get older
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Durkheim
Believed that society is divided into two groups: sacred and profane. Sacred objects are only made special due to them being worshipped (totems). Aboriginal clans. Religion is rarely individual and so group solidarity is affirmed.
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Watson (gender and religion)
Interviewed women about what the Muslim veil meant to them and found that the majority of them saw it as a positive thing (a way to avoid stares) rather than it being used as a tool of oppressing women.
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Simone de Beauvoir (gender and religion)
Religion is used by men to control and oppress women. Religion compensates women for the second class status as they get a false belief that they'll be rewarded in heaven and find equality there.
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Steve Bruce (ethnicity and religion)
Cultural defence: using religion as a way of protecting identity in an essentially hostile environment. Cultural transition: using religion as a way of coping with the upheaval of migration.
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Gramsci
Hegemony: how the ruling class use religion to control the working class. Religion challenges as well as supports the ruling class. Religious beliefs could develop and guide popular changes to the ruling class.
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Malinowski
Trobriand Islanders- found that religious rituals are used in time of tension. 4 life crises: birth, puberty, marriage and death. Rituals (eg. funeral) allow the tension to be dealt with allowing people to continue to positively contribute to society
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Daly (gender and religion)
Christianity is a 'patriarchal myth'. Christianity is rooted in male rituals and it embodies women hating.
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Eileen Barker
Came up with the term 'New Religious Movements' in attempt to eliminate the negative stigma attached to 'cult' and 'sect'. She distinguished eight features of a NRM.
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Gill (age and religion)
Children are no longer receiving religious socialisation making it unlikely that they'll be religious later in life, demonstrating a decline in religion.
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Steve Bruce (secularisation)
Privatisation - the church has less opportunity to involve itself in non-religious spheres.
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Ainsley (gender and religion)
"Women are the takers of ****"
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Steve Bruce (fundamentalism)
Fundamentalism is a result of secularisation
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Niebuhr
Denominations: (inter)national membership, formal, no monopoly of truth, stronger commitment required e.g. baptists. Cults: local/(inter)national membership, short-lived- often die with charismatic leader, no monopoly of truth e.g. spiritualism
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Marx
'Religion is the opium of the people' - religion dulls the pain of oppression for the working class. It's an ideological appartatus, members suffer false consciousness as the happiness that's promised is just an illusion.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Civil Religion - 'universal religion of the nation'. Most American's share common religious characteristics expressed through beliefs, symbols and rituals e.g. Independence Day and Thanksgiving.

Back

Bellah

Card 3

Front

Science and religion are separate and can work together. Science can provide knowledge whereas religion can provide moral guidance. Dawkins argues that Gould's just trying to appease powerful religious groups.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Spiritual Shopping - people have the ability to pick and choose a religion that 'fits' them. The idea of being able to 'pick 'n' mix' religions. Cultural amnesia - religious beliefs are not being passed down generations so children are less religious

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Policy Studies Institute Survey: found that there's an overall decline in the importance of religion for all main religious groups. Few second generation respondents attend a place of worship.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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