What's in a medicine? Revision Flashcards

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  • Created by: LBCW0502
  • Created on: 09-05-16 19:36
What is a drug?
A substance that alters the way your body works
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What is pharmacology?
The study of drugs and their actions
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What is pharmacy?
Dispensing medicines
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What are the physical properties of alcohols?
Polar (OH bond/hydrogen bonding), high boiling points, shorter chains are more soluble in water (more contact with OH groups in water)
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What is a primary alcohol?
-OH bonded to a carbon bonded to one other carbon atom e.g. butan-1-ol
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What is a secondary alcohol?
-OH bonded to a carbon bonded to two other carbon atoms e.g. butan-2-ol
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What is a tertiary alcohol?
-OH bonded to a carbon bonded to three other carbon atoms e.g. 2-methylpropan-2-ol
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What is the name of the strong oxidising agent needed to oxidise the -OH group?
Acidified potassium dichromate solution (chromate ions are reduced - orange to green)
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What type of product is produced in an oxidation reaction of a primary alcohol (alcohol is in excess)?
An aldehyde (e.g ethanal)
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What type of product is produced in an oxidation reaction of a primary alcohol (oxidising agent in excess)?
Carboxylic acid (e.g. ethanoic acid)
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What type of product is produced in an oxidation reaction of a secondary alcohol?
A ketone
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What type of product is produced in an oxidation reaction of a tertiary alcohol?
No product is produced
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What is reflux?
Heating volatile and flammable liquids. The liquid boils with a vertically mounted condenser so the vapour condenses and returns back into the reaction mixture
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What are the conditions required for the dehydration of alcohols?
Heated catalyst of alumina and 300 degrees Celsius or reflux with concentrated sulphuric acid
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What is an elimination reaction?
A reaction where a small molecule is removed from a larger molecule leaving an unsaturated molecule. In this case of alcohols the small molecule is water
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What are the two ways of converting alcohols into esters?
Esterification using an acid anhydride and esterification using a carboxylic acid
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What conditions are needed for esterification?
A small amount of either concentrated sulphuric acid or concentrated hydrochloric acid and the reaction is heated under reflux
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What is the advantage of using an acid anhydride in esterification?
A higher yield of ester is produced
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What is the general formula for ethers?
R-O-R (isomers of alcohols)
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Which functional group is present in a carboxylic acid?
-COOH
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Name 2 examples of carboxylic acid derivates?
Ester and acid anhydride
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Name three types of compounds where an -OH group is present
Carboxylic acid, alcohol and phenol
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Write down the 4 types of compounds with an -OH group in order to acid strength (weakest to strongest)
Ethanol - water - phenol - carboxylic acid
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What two types of compounds can react with NaOH to produce sodium salts?
Carboxylic acids and phenols
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Which type of compound can react with sodium carbonate to produce a sodium salt (and carbon dioxide is released)?
Carboxylic acids
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Which type of compound does not react with either sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate
Alcohols
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What is the test for the presence of phenols?
Iron (III) chloride turns from yellow to purple
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What does an IR spectrum show?
The functional groups present in a compound
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Name the 3 types of vibrations in the carbon dioxide molecule
Symmetric stretch, asymmetric stretch and symmetric bend
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What are the units on an IR spectrum?
cm-1 (wavenumber)
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What is the fingerprint region?
Region below 1500cm-1. This part of the spectrum can be quite complex and it is more difficult to assign absorptions to particular bonds. This region is characteristic of the particular molecule
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What can mass spectrometry be used to find out?
Atomic mass of elements and relative abundances of isotopes in an element
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What is the molecular ion peak?
Heaviest ion - used to determine the molecular mass of the compound being analysed
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What is the base peak?
The most abundant ion which gives the strongest detector signal (set to 100%)
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What is fragmentation pattern?
The way in which a parent ion breaks down is characteristic of that compound
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Name three compounds which involve green chemistry principles in production
Taxol, atorvastatin and Ibuprofen
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What are the names of the techniques for purifying organic solids?
Recrystallisation, thin layer chromatography and melting point determination
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is pharmacology?

Back

The study of drugs and their actions

Card 3

Front

What is pharmacy?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the physical properties of alcohols?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a primary alcohol?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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