What is a species?

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  • Created by: Steff06
  • Created on: 17-06-16 19:26
What is the biological species concept?
A group of similar organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
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When is this concept problematic?
Problematic when biologists want to classify living organisms that do not reproduce sexually. Some members of the same species may look very different from each other.
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What is the phylogenetic species concept?
A group of organisms that have similar morphology, physiology, embryology and behaviour and occupy the same ecological niche.
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What is expressed as % divergence?
Analyses of the base pair sequences is carried out and the differences caused by base substitutions.
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What is the formula for % divergence?
Number of substitutions/number of base pairs analysed x 100
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What is a clade?
Any group of organisms with haplotypes that are more similar to each other than to those in any other group.
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What is the use of molecular systematics known as?
A cladistic approach to classification.
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What type of group is a clade?
A clade is a taxonomic group compromising a single ancestral organism and all its descendants.
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What is this type of group known as?
A monophyletic group.
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What is a monophyletic group?
One that includes an ancestral organism and all its descendant species.
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Define cladistics
The hierarchical classification of species based on their evolutionary ancestry.
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How is cladistics different from taxonomic classification systems?
It focuses on evolution instead of similarities between species. Places great importance on using objective and quantitative analysis. Uses DNA and RNA sequencing. Uses computer programmes and makes no distinction between extinct and extant species.
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How is cladistics different from Linnean classification?
It does not use the groups kingdom, phylum or class as it regards the evolutionary tree as very complex.
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What does the Linnean classification system show?
Shows both monophyletic and paraphyletic groups as taxa.
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What a paraphyletic group include?
Includes the most recent ancestor but not all its descendants. It is a monophyletic group.
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Card 2

Front

When is this concept problematic?

Back

Problematic when biologists want to classify living organisms that do not reproduce sexually. Some members of the same species may look very different from each other.

Card 3

Front

What is the phylogenetic species concept?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is expressed as % divergence?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the formula for % divergence?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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