Westward Expansion

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What did Thomas Jefferson believe about westward expansion?
Duty to expand the 'empire of liberty'
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What was the Louisiana Purchase?
April 1803 James Monroe purchases Louisiana from France for $15 million
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What was the war of 1812 about?
Britain officially blockading coast Europe part revolutionary wars American exports difficult. Really wanted push Britain out Canada. America lost (Treaty of Ghent December 1814).
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When did Florida become part of the USA?
1819 Adams-Onis Treaty
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Why did Americans begin to move west?
Hard for farmers in New England to make a living.Agricultural competition force down prices. Rocky NE soil unsuitable for most crops. o Over-cultivation South decline crops and exhausted fields tobacco states Virginia, Maryland and North Carolina
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How did roads aid westward expansion?
1808 ‘National Road’ or ‘Cumberland Pike’. Funded federal government. 1838 800miles ran River Ohio to Potomac.
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How did canals aid westward expansion?
1816 100miles and 1817 Erie Canal Albany to Buffalo. Ran 363miles 83locks and 18aqueducts finished 1825. Economic success, travel time 20days to 8. Paid itself nine years and led canal-building boom.1840 3326miles financed state gov
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Who were Lewis and Clark?
1803 Jefferson persuade Congress provide money expedition map west. May 1804 Lewis and Clark off St Louis travelled 4000miles.
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Who are Pike and Long?
1806-7 Pike explore Arkansas River. 1819-20 Long explore Nebraska and Colorado to Rockies.
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When did Texas become independent and why?
1835 30,000Americans, 5,000 slaves only 5,000 Mexicans. 1835-6 Texans declare independence. Santa Anna march north and defeat Texans at Alamo (March 1836). April 1836 American-Texan led Sam Houston defeated Mexicans San Jacinto become independent
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When did Texas join the Union?
Jackson and Van Buren ignored late 1830s and early 1840s but major issue 1844 presidential election won Polk promised annexation of Texas and Oregon. Joined Union single state 1845 (large enough to be split into 5)
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What was Manifest Destiny?
1845 Democrat journalist O’Sullivan said manifest destiny possess whole continent development of liberty and self-government.
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When was the Mexican War?
Polk provoked war sending troops disputed area. May 1846 Mexico attack US killing/wounding 16. Congress declare war.
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Why did the Mexican War happen?
Mexican government not accept annexation of Texas, land disputes and claimed owed $2million compensation damage American raids. Polk’s policy worsened relations. 1845 Polk sent Slidell offer $30million Cali and NM but Mex refuse. Polk sends troops
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What did the USA gain from the Mexican War?
Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo signed February 1848 gained Cali and New Mexico (Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, Wyoming) pay Mexico $15million compensation. Ratified Senate May 1848. Border Mexico settled Gadsden Purchase 1853 bought 45,000sq miles
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What was the Wilmot Proviso?
August 1846 Wilmot (Pennsylvania Democrat) slavery excluded all land gained Mexico. Not abolitionist against pro-Southern policy. Northern Democrats support Southern against. Passed House of Representatives rejected Senate not law.
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Who were the 'Forty Niners'?
Part of the mining frontier. 1848 gold California few months 40,000men cross Great Plains. Many not miners and most not find gold wandered home or drifted.
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Name some other mining rushes
1858-9 Colorado led Pike Peak Rush. Comstock Lode Nevada yield high make $350million. 1860s Montana and Arizona. 1870 Leadville, Colorado short boom as Creede and Cripple Creek. Major discovery Black Hills of Dakota 1870s rush Sioux territory
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When did the mining rushes stop?
1880 rush prospectors stopped most settle work mining bosses or farming.
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How did the Mormons aid westward expansion?
Chased out of Ohio to Missouri in 1837. Then driven out of Missouri bc suspected of being abolitionists and friendly with natives, also Danites. Brigham Young takes them to Utah in 1847. Perpetual Emigration Fund
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How important was communication in westward expansion?
1847 federal mail contract syndicate provide between St Louis and San Francisco guarantee delivery 25days. 1860 Pony Express faster mail service between St Joseph, Missouri and Sacramento, California 10days. Transcontinental telegraph line 1861
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When was the Pacific Railroad Act passed and what did it allow?
July 1862 Pacific Railroad Act authorise Central Pacific Company build east Sacramento and Union Pacific Company west Omaha. Given huge land and government loans.
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When was the railway completed?
Met at Promontory Point May 1869
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How many km of track was there west of the Mississippi in 1900?
139,200km track west Mississippi
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Why did the cattle frontier start?
Cattle worth $3-4 in Texas but if got St Louis, Chicago or northern markets 10x as much
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What was the first cattle town?
Abilene 1st Kansas cattle town. 1866-88 6-10million cattle driven cattle towns and there Chicago or mid-west stockyards.
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How did dime novels help westward expansion and the cattle frontier?
Dime novels life glamorous reality different in saddle 18hour through dust and floods, snakes, scorpions, blizzards, stampedes, rustlers and Natives.
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What caused the end of the open range and the beginning of ranches?
1885-7 terrible winters summer drought death million cattle, millions ruined. Survivors small ranches with new barbed wire. 1890 open range and cowboys over.
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What was the Homestead and did it work?
1862 Homestead Act farmers claim western land free staking claim living on 5years. Poor not afford move west, tools, seed, stock and machinery etc. 160acres small make living many no intention farming and acting for speculators, cattlemen or mining
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Name some other federal laws designed to aid westward expansion
Preemption Act 1841, Desert Land Act 1877 buy 640acres $1.25 if irrigated 2years, Timber Culture Act 1873 allow people claim 160acre more if plant ¼ tree in 10years, Morrill Act 1862
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What were bonanza farms?
Minnesota and Dakota machinery mass production employed scores men controlled by wealthy corporations.
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What is Turner's Frontier Thesis?
Argued frontier shaped national character. Source democracy, open society, unconstrained economy, rugged individualism.
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Card 2


What was the Louisiana Purchase?


April 1803 James Monroe purchases Louisiana from France for $15 million

Card 3


What was the war of 1812 about?


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Card 4


When did Florida become part of the USA?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Why did Americans begin to move west?


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