German Foreign Policy 1890-1914

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What was Bismarck's main priority with foreign policy?
to maintain a 'balance of power' in Europe, not allowing any one state to alter the status quo
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What was one method used by Bismarck to isolate France?
The formation of the Drekaiserband fostered monarchical unity against republican France
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What was one of Bismarck's primary successes in German foreign policy?
He formed, through the Dual and Triple Alliances, a solid bloc of German influenced territory in Central Europe
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When did the 'Reinsurance Treaty' lapse?
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When did Russia and France form an 'entente'? when did this develop into a Franco-Russian alliance?
1891, 1894
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What does 'weltpolitik' translate to?
world power
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How did Wilhelm make a direct practical contribution to the policy of 'weltpolitik'?
He appointed its enthusiastic supporters, such as Tirpitz and Bulow, to high offices
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What was the lasting effect of the Kruger telegram in 1896?
To cause offence to a potentially friendly European power
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What did the first Naval Bill of 1898 envisage?
an eventual force of 19 battleships, 12 heavy cruisers, 30 light cruisers
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What were the physical results of Weltpolitik
a million sq miles of colonies dotted about the globe, almost indefensible and totally vulnerable
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Why was there an international incident over Morocco in 1905?
In March 1905 the Kaiser landed at the Moroccan port of Tangier, and made a speech supporting the Sultan's independence and German interests, Bulow demanded an international conference to review the Morocan situation
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What was the outcome of Algeciras in 1906?
Germany was humiliated and France maintained its influence over Morocco
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What were the implications of the first Moroccan crisis?
Anglo-French relations were strengthened, the British gov. became concerned about German brinkmanship they entered military conversations with France, in 1907 Britain and Russia signed an Entente
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Why did another crisis emerge in North Africa in 1911?
Germany attempted to test existing Anglo-French relations by sending a gunboat to Morocco amidst a revolt in Fez - it was intended as a lever to win the whole of the French Congo
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What were the results of the second Moroccan crisis?
The Chancellor of the Exchequer told Germany that Britain's interests were at stake, Britain stood by France, political tensions in Europe increased, within 1 year Britain and France signed a naval agreement
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What were Austria's ambitions in the Balkans?
Austrians aimed to keep control over southern Slavs and to prevent it being eaten away by external forces and to maintain its Empire against Balkan nationalism
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Explain the 1908 Bosnian crisis?
In 1908 Austria annexed Bosnia, the Triple Entente demanded an international conference which Austria refused - Germany & Austria forced Russia to accept the annexation which it did in March 1909
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Did Germany gain anything from the Bosnian crisis?
It was a diplomatic triumph - alliance with Austria was strengthened and the weaknesses of the Triple Entente were highlighted
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What was the 'Balkan League'?
It composed of the states - Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria and Greece
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What was the reaction of the Balkan League's victory over Turkey in 1912?
Russia was determined to back the Balkan League, Austria felt that the fall of the Turkish Empire would be fatal because of the possible growth of Serbia at the expense of its own empire
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What was the 'War Council' Meeting of 1912? why was it significant?
In response to an outburst by the Kaiser, an assembly was hastily gathered to discuss the possibility of an outbreak of war, it provides evidence to the view that Germany was planning war, or just shows a pessimistic feeling among German leaders
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What date was Franz Ferdinand assassinated?
28th June
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When did Germany send an ultimatum to Russia?
31st July
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When did Germany declare war on Russia?
1st August
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When did Germany invade Belgium and declare war on France?
3rd August
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When did Britain declare war on Germany?
4th August
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How were the Triple Entente in the process of expanding their military by 1914?
The French increased the period of conscription by 1 year in 1913, the Russian army was undergoing a major programme of expansion to be completed in 1917
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How did Bismarck describe the Franco-Russian alliance?
"a nightmare"
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During which period would Germany's military advantage vanish?
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What did Moltke, Chief of General Staff, think about fighting a preventative war?
"the sooner the better"
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What would be the consequences for Britain of a German victory over France?
The continental balance of power would be destroyed, this had enabled Britain to pursue imperial and maritime commitments
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What is the significance of the system of alliances that existed in Europe by 1914?
The means existed whereby a local conflict could be transformed into a continental war, and it had a direct bearing on the arms race and the development of military schedules
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Explain 'Primat der Innenpolitik'
this concept argues that the destructive influence of industrialisation caused tensions in Germany's social and economic structure, these were diverted outwards in order to preserve the status quo
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What did Bulow say of foreign policy in 1897?
'Only a successful foreign policy can help to reconcile, pacify, rally, unite.'
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When were naval bills passed in Germany?
1898, 1900, 1906, 1912
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What did the Anglo-Japanese Alliance allow Britain to do?
Withdraw naval forces from the Pacific to reinforce the North Sea fleet against a growing German presence
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Give an example of Germany's aggression during the summer of 1914?
They rejected Edward Grey's attempts to mediate the crisis, indicating the German was not willing to resolve the situation diplomatically
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What was the name of the German gunship in the 2nd Moroccan Crisis?
the Panther
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How many dreadnought's did Britain's 1911 predictions estimate Germany and Britain would have?
Britain 12, Germany 11
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What was the name of the speech given by David Lloyd George in which he warned Germany against further aggression?
the 'Mansion House' speech
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When was the last chance for Britain and German to come to an agreement gone?
With the failure of the Haldane Mission in Feb 1912 (Haldane was the British Minister for War)
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What was the purpose of the Balkan League?
Seizing territory from the collapsing Ottoman Empire
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The Army Bill of June 2013 increased the German army's size by how many troops?
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When was Belgian neutrality agreed?
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What was the Treaty of Bjorko?
Signed between Russia and Germany in July 1905, it was aimed at creating closer bonds between the two nations but came to nothing
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What was one of the concessions to be demanded of France in the September Programme?
A coastal ***** from Dunkirk to Boulogne
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Card 2


The formation of the Drekaiserband fostered monarchical unity against republican France


What was one method used by Bismarck to isolate France?

Card 3


He formed, through the Dual and Triple Alliances, a solid bloc of German influenced territory in Central Europe


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Card 4




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Card 5


1891, 1894


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