Wellbeing and Personality

personality influences
- vulnerability to physical and psychological illness - how we experience illness - how likely we are to seek support - recovery and outcome of illness
1 of 45
what are personality disorders
distinct groups of psychological disorders and describes ways that our personality can impact our daily functioning and quality of life
2 of 45
links between personality and health
1. direct link 2. correlational link 3. traits may influence our behaviours; influencing risks for certain illness 4. illness may result in personality changes
3 of 45
The Big Five and Health - Smith and Williams (1992)
explanatory value of the FFM; useful framework
4 of 45
Goodwin and Friedman (2006)
differing relations with psychological and physical illness for Big 5
5 of 45
Treatment and therapy adherence (Bruce et al., 2010; Christensen and Smith, 1995; Stilley et al., 2004)
evidence that lower levels of conscientiousness linked to lower treatment adherence
6 of 45
Risk and Resilience: Smith (2006) four features
1. role of anger and hostility (Smith, Glazer, Ruiz & Gallo, 2004) 2. social dominance (Houston et al., 1992) 3. neuroticism and negative affect 4. optimism
7 of 45
Neuroticism and health : prospective studies
- reduced longevity; serious physical disease - time lagged effect of negative affect and neuroticism on physical health
8 of 45
somatic symptom disorders
- physical complaints with no identifiable medical cause: . chronic pain; illness anxiety disorder (hypochondriasis); body dysmorphia . link between neuroticism and experience of somatic symptoms
9 of 45
Optimism
- optimists less susceptible to depression and anxiety, tend to live longer
10 of 45
Schier & Carver (1987)
optimists report fewer physical symptoms than pessimists, recover better from major surgery and report fewer complications
11 of 45
Issues
- need for prospective designs - concurrent for association could reflect psychological reaction to disease - quantifying disease and physical illness appropriately - associations are not explanations
12 of 45
Illness vs Illness Behaviour: Williams (2011)
- explored type D and illness beliefs and behaviours - type D scale - brief illness perceptions questionnaire - 33% type D - different from non-type D on all illness perceptions dimensions - mechanism for poor recovery rates?
13 of 45
role of stress
- ability to cope with stress is a potentially important mechanism - stress is a response to perceived demands - diathesis stress models of psychological disorders
14 of 45
1. health behaviour models
personality can impact on engagement with health behaviours, and can also influence our appraisal and coping strategies when faced with stressful situations
15 of 45
2. interactional stress model
personality moderates the physiological responses to stressors that can influence the subsequent likelihood of disease
16 of 45
3. transactional stress model
personality influences exposure to stressful circumstances
17 of 45
Locus of control: Rotter (1996)
extent to which individuals believe they can control events and their experiences
18 of 45
internal locus
our behaviour can influence the outcome of a situation or scenario
19 of 45
external locus
outcome is out of our control
20 of 45
links with psychological and physical disorders
- depression and suicide - therapy and quality of life in illness
21 of 45
self-efficacy
degree of confidence in our ability to perform a particular task, in order to achieve a positive outcome
22 of 45
Maciejewski et al (2000)
self-efficacy important mediator between stressful life events and depressive symptoms
23 of 45
personality disorders
- enduring maladaptive patterns of behaviours and cognitions that deviate markedly from what is expected and accepted - extreme and severe disturbances affecting not only the individual but also their interpersonal relations
24 of 45
DSm-5 criteria
pattern of behaviour and experiences that deviate from normal
25 of 45
criteria
- enduring, inflexible, pervasive - stable over time - not a result of another psychological disorder or substance - clinically significant impairment or distress
26 of 45
Prevalence and comorbidity
WHO: total prevalence rates around 6%
27 of 45
Clusters
A: 3.6%: odd/eccentric disorder B: 1.5%: dramatic, emotional or erratic C: 2.7%: anxious or fearful
28 of 45
characteristics of the healthy self
1. identity: unique person with stable boundaries 2. self-direction: meaningful goals, appreciation of social norms and how to interact with others 3. positive interpersonal relationships: empathy, understand impact of behaviour on others.
29 of 45
Saulsman & Page (2004)
- neuroticism related to all personality disorders - agreeableness - extraversion: histrionic/avoidant PD
30 of 45
Cluster A
- paranoid personality disorder - schizoid personality disorder - shizotypal personality disorder
31 of 45
Schizotypal personality disoder
- extreme discomfort with and reduced tendency for close relations - odd beliefs or magical thinking - unusual perceptual experiences - odd thinking/speech - ideas of reference - social anxiety
32 of 45
...SZ?
- A's believed to be on same spectrum as SZ - first degree relatives of Sz more likely to show A PDs - prodromal phase of SZ - similar brain abnormalities
33 of 45
Cluster B
- antisocial PD - borderline PD - histrionic PD - narcisstic PD
34 of 45
Borderline PD
- intense/unstable relations - fear of abandonment - feelings of emptiness/worthlessness - implusiveness - paranoia/delusions - mood instability - self-harm, anxious, poor cope with stress
35 of 45
Causes:
- abuse - insecure attachment - impulsivity trait - reduced volume in emotional and decision-making area of brain - represent 20% inpatients and 10% outpatients
36 of 45
Cluster C
- OCPD - avoidant personality disorder - dependent PD
37 of 45
OCPD
- overly concerned with details, organisation, rules - perfection interferes with completing tasks - extremely devoted to work, social life suffers - conscientious of issues of morals - difficult working with people - rigid, stubborn
38 of 45
vs OCD
- insight - impact work, social, family life - interpersonal relationships - fixation with following procedures - treatment seeking behaviours
39 of 45
causes of PD's
1. genetic and heritability influences - development and childhood experiences - biological influences
40 of 45
Heritability of PD: Torgersen (2000) twin study
A - 37% B - 60% C - 63% All - 60% - borderline PD estimates around 40% - avoidance around 35%
41 of 45
Environmental Factors: childhood
- antisocial, borderline and SZ linked to parenting behaviours: low levels of affection, lack of nurturing, neglect, emotional and sexual abuse, negative childhood experiences
42 of 45
Miller & Lisak (1999)
childhood abuse history significantly associated with greater levels of symptomatology across all three clusters
43 of 45
Treatment of PD's
- present differently: individual approach - difficulty maintaining relationship with therapist - rarely present for treatment - dialetical behaviour therapy
44 of 45
Dialetical Behaviour Therapy (Linehan, 1993) - borderline PD
- pretreatmentstage - first stage: stabilising - second: processing traumatic events - third: developing sense of self
45 of 45

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what are personality disorders

Back

distinct groups of psychological disorders and describes ways that our personality can impact our daily functioning and quality of life

Card 3

Front

links between personality and health

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

The Big Five and Health - Smith and Williams (1992)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Goodwin and Friedman (2006)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Personality resources »