Weimar Germany Unit 1

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What are 2 weaknesses of the Weimar Constitution?
PR- too many small parties - nothing done AND Aritcle 48- allowed president to rule by himself- undermined democracy
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Why did the Germans hate the new government?
They surrendered to the allies AND they signed the Treaty of Versailles
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What where the key terms of the Treaty of Versailles in Land?
lost 13%. No anschluss with Austria . Lost 10% population. Lost 15%Agriculture. lost 16% coal and lost 48%iron production.
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What where the key terms of the Treaty of Versailles in Arms?
Rhineland was demilitarised. Army- 100000. No tanks, air force or subs. 6 battleships.
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What where the key terms of the Treaty of Versailles in Blame?
Article 231- blamed them for starting war. Reparations of £6600m
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Why did Germans hate the Treaty of Versailles?
1: Blame 2: Force to pay 3: Humiliated Army 4:Split country 5:Dictated on them 6: Harsh
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What were the politicians of that time known as?
The November Criminals
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Why were the sparacists (Communists) a threat?
They wanted workers to rule Germany through soviets and have more power and rights.
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Who led the spartacists?
Rosa Luxemburg AND Karl Liebknecht
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How did the Rising end?
The Free Corps sorted them out. Killed both leaders.
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Why did the Kapp Putsch happen?
Kapp was angry because the Treaty of Versailles humiliated the Army and reduced it to 100000 men.
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What did the Kapp do?
in March 1920, Kapp and The Free Corps took over key locations in Berlin.
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What did the Army do about Kapp?
nothing.
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How did the Kapp Putsch end?
Communist strike in Berlin . Kapp was forced to flee after 4 days.
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What was The Red Rising?
In the Ruhr, the workers were on strike over Kapp. Once Kapp left, they stayed on strike to get benifits or concessions form President Ebert's government ; they just saved.
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What happend at the Red Rising?
Communists formed their own Army but were beaten by the Free Corps and the German Army.
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Why did Hyperinflation happen?
1) Germany failed to pay 2nd reparation 2) France and Belgium didn't believe them so sent troops to occupy Ruhr. 3) Passive Resistence 4) Workers still had to be paid 5) Printed Money 6) Currency worthless 7) Hyperinflation
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How did Hyperinflation affect Germany?
1) Poor had nothing 2) Pensions/fixed incomes suffered 3) Starving+Homeless 4) Prices Up 5) Barter Economy Developed- trade 6) Middle Class savings all gone 7) Property and Land were okay 8) Farmers grew own food 9) Loans/ debts/ mortgages gone
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Who came in between 1923 and 1929?
Gustav Stresemann
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What did he do?
Recovered Hyperinflation
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How?
1)His leadership 2) ended Passive resistence 3) Cut government spending 4) said he would pay reparastions- troops out of Ruhr 5) New bank + currency 6) Dawes plan 7) Young Plan 8) hope 9) Locarno Treaties- border 10) league of nations
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What were the positives?
1) No more Hyperinflation 2) no more risings/ putsches 3) confidence + hope 4) Nazi Vote dropped
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What were the Negatives?
1) Weak Economy 2) unsteady industry 3)agriculture depression 4)Unemplyment up
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What did the Wall Street Crash do?
It exposed the weaknesses of the economy.
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Who was the Leader of the Nazi Party?
Adolf Hitler
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What document held his ideas for Germany?
He had a 25 point plan + Mein Kampf
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What did he believe in?
1) Destruction of TOV 2)Destruction of Weimar System 3)Bigger Germany 4) Strong Government 5) Unite all but Jews 6) Restore Military
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Why did the Nazis organize the Munich Putsch in 1923?
1)Angry at Stresemann for ending Passive resistence 2)Thought time was right - hyperinflation
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Why did it all go so badly wrong?
Hitler hoped the support of several key figures would secure backing of police and army - NO! 2) Badly organised 3) no plan B
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What were the results?
Putsch Failed 2) Hitler Jailed
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How did Hitler turn disaster into advantage?
1)He used his trial to his his advantage and maximized the media coverage- claimed Germany had been 'Stabbed in the Back' by Weimar politicians not by him 2) Sentenced to only 5 years in prison- out after 9 months
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Why did the Nazis change tactics ?
1) Hitler realised he had to change tactics violence hadn't worked so peaceful democratic means would be the way forward 2) Wrote Mein Kampf- change thinking
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What new steps did they take?
1) Use democracy 2) Nazi party reorganised 3)Stressed obedience to Hitler- Fuhrerprinzip 3) SS and Hitler youth formed
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What about Stresemann ?
Nazi vote dropped . Only got 12 seats in 1928 election. No need for change from Weimar system ( what nazis wanted.)
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Why did the Wall Street Crash devastate Germany?
Germany relied heavily on USA Loans - German economy also collapsed
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How did this affect the German people?
1)Prices and wages fell 2) Businesses went bankrupt 3) Unemployment - 3m by 1930 - 6mby 1933 4) Banks closed 5)thousands of farmers went bankrupt 6)Industrial production halved 7) Homeless + Starving
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Could Stresemann save the day?
Dead.
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What was the response of the Weimar government to the crisis?
1) They failed to deal with it 2)PR- no decisions made 3) Article 48- used + showed weakness
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Who was the 'Hunger Chancellor'?
Chancellor Bruning
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Why was he unpopular?
He wanted to cut unemployment benifits+ reduce wages.
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What happend to him?
He resigned when unemployment reached 6m in 1933.
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Did the situation get worst?
YES. The German people lost faith .2 more Chancellors followed - both had to use Article 48.
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What about Hitler?
Hitler was asked to become chancellor - 30th January 1933.
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Why was He chancellor?
1)The president had run out of options.2)He was the leader of the largest party.3) They thought he could be controlled.
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Why did Hitler and the Nazis become more and more popular?
1) People lost faith in the government 2) Propaganda- Joseph Goebbles 3) Simple Policies- Bread + work 4) Hitler Appeal 5)SA attacked opponents + won supporters
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Why where Nazi messages popular?
1) Smash TOV 2) Work + Bread 3) Told people what they wanted to hear 3) Businesses backed Hitler- fear of communists 4) Hitler was the right man delivering the right messages at the right time.
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Card 2

Front

Why did the Germans hate the new government?

Back

They surrendered to the allies AND they signed the Treaty of Versailles

Card 3

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What where the key terms of the Treaty of Versailles in Land?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What where the key terms of the Treaty of Versailles in Arms?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What where the key terms of the Treaty of Versailles in Blame?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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