Weimar Republic 1924-29: Politics and Economics

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What were the strengths of the German economy at this time?
Heavy industry recovered from hyperinflation quickly, more efficient methods of production were used, Germany's higher interest rates attracted foreign investment, growing number of cartels meant costs could be lowered
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By when did production levels reach those of 1913?
1928
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By what percentage did German exports increase between 1925-9?
40%
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By what percentage did hourly wages increase between 1927-8?
5-10%
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In 1927 a compulsory unemployment insurance scheme was created, how many workers did it cover?
17 million
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Give examples of obvious signs of wealth seen between 1924-9
The construction of local amenities such as parks, schools and sports facilities, the growth of the cinema industry
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Unemployment never fell below what number in this period?
1.3 million
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Did grain production ever recover to the levels of 1913?
No, it was only 3/4 of the 1913 figure
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By the late 1920s income per head in agriculture was what percentage below the national average?
44%
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How did world economic conditions not favour Germany?
World trade did not recover to pre-war levels, German exports were hindered by protective tariffs - the value of imports always exceeded exports
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How was the German economy handicapped by the Treaty of Versailles?
Valuable territories were lost such as Alsace-Lorraine and Silesia
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How much iron-ore production was lost by the Treaty of Versailles?
48%
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What fraction of the German population did farmers make up?
1/3
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Why did the German economy become dependent upon foreign investment
Savings and investments were discouraged
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From what year did the government continually run into debt?
1925
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What percentage of GNP was spent on public expenditure by 1928?
26%
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How did the government's welfare state affect business?
Higher contributions required from employers towards social insurance both increased production costs and left less money available for investment
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What is significant about Germany's economic dependence on foreign loans?
It made Germany liable to suffer from any problems that arose in the world market
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What did Stresemann say of the German economy in 1928?
"Germany is dancing on a volcano. If the short-term credits are called in, a large section of our economy would collapse"
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What was the attitude of political parties towards government?
Irresponsible
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During this period what was the percentage of votes cast for extremist parties?
less than 30%
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In 1928 the Nazis were reduced to how many seats in the Reichstag?
12
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How many seats in the Reichstag did the SPD win in the 1928 vote?
153
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Why was it significant for government coalitions in this period that the SPD was not involved?
As they were the largest party in the Reichstag, it weakened the power base of democratic coalitions in power
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The Centre Party participated in all coalitions between 1919-32, what were the limitations of this party?
Its support did not increase because its appeal was restricted to traditional Catholic areas
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How did the Republic's liberal parties fare in elections?
Badly, their combined vote halved since 1919-20, when it had been 22/23%
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It has been argued that Hindenburg as president fulfilled the role of a...
... Ersatzkaiser ('substitute emperor')
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Why did it appear the Republic was politically stable?
There was no putsch from left or right, law and order was restored, and the activities of paramilitary groups were limited
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What trivial matters did government coalitions collapse over?
The use of the national flag, the creations of religious schools
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What kind of attitude was shown by Germans towards party politics?
Growing contempt and cynicism, shown by the decline in turn-out to elections
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How did the Republic's welfare system increase costs of public administration?
It increased the size of the bureaucracy by 40% between 1914 and 1923. doubling the cost of public administration
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In 1928 how many working days were lost to strikes?
20.3 million
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Between 1924-31 how much did Germany pay in reparations? and, how much was gained from foreign loans?
11,000 million marks were paid in reparations, 18,000 were gained from foreign loans
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What was the balance of trade between imports and exports in 1925?
12.4 thousand million marks to 9.3 thousand million marks
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How many governments were there during the whole Weimar Republic?
18
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How many minority governments were there during the whole Weimar Republic?
10
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What does Hindeburg's election in 1925 suggest?
Many were looking back at Imperial Germany nostalgically
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What did Gustav Stolper say in 1929 of the problem with party politics?
"There are no government parties, only opposition parties. This state of things is a greater danger to the democratic system than ministers and parliamentarians realise"
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Card 2

Front

By when did production levels reach those of 1913?

Back

1928

Card 3

Front

By what percentage did German exports increase between 1925-9?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

By what percentage did hourly wages increase between 1927-8?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

In 1927 a compulsory unemployment insurance scheme was created, how many workers did it cover?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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