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  • Created on: 09-05-16 11:59
What did Schleicher propose to the left to try and gain their support?
A programme of public works.
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What caused the Wall Street Crach of October 1929?
The collapse of the New York Stock Exchange.
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By what percentage did the value of German exports decrease by 1932?
55% (Not: 40%)
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What percentage of the votes did the Nazis receive in the May 1928 elections?
2.6% of the vote.
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When did Gustav Stresemann die?
October 1929.
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Why did Muller's Grand Coalition collapse?
The sharp increase in unemployment led to a large deficit in the new national insurance scheme: thew parties within the government could not decide on a solution.
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How many times was Article 48 used in 1931 compared to 1930?
1930 = 5 times. 1931 = 44 times.
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Why did Bruning lose the support of Hindenburg?
Hindenburg opposed of his plan to distribute spare land to unemployed workers.
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State the figures for the passing of the vote of No Confidence in Papen's government.
512 votes to 42 votes.
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What did Papen abolish in Prussia?
Its regional state government, appointing himself as Reich Minister.
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What did Schleicher aim to restore?
Political stability and national support.
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What year did Ludendorff stand for President and what percentage of the vote did he receive?
1925, 1.1%
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When did Ernst Rohm resign from the NSDAP?
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What did Strasser place a greater emphasis on?
The parties 'socialism'.
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What position did Hitler make Strasser in 1926?
Party Propaganda Leader.
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In 1926-27, the Nazis tried to increase their support by focusing on rural areas. What was this called?
The urban plan.
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How many new houses were built during the period 1924 - 31?
2 million
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During the period 1924 - 29, by what percentage did national income rise by?
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During the period 1924 - 29, what percentage did German exports rise by?
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Negative points of the economy, 1924 - 29: The Weimar government's commitment...
to the welfare state alienated the elites.
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What percentage of the vote did the extremist parties possess in the period 1924-29?
Less than 30 per cent: they were not a threat.
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When was Paul von Hindenburg elected President?
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How many coalition governments were there in the period 1924 - 29, and what was the highest length of time a government lasted?
7 coalition governments, 21 months.
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Why were people losing faith in party politics? (1924 - 29)
They began to see it as a product of the constant bargaining of politicians.
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What position did Ludendorff hold in September 1918?
Supreme Commander.
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What did the German people demand in the German revolution of 1918-1919?
a. Abdication of the Kaiser. b. A republican and socialist reform.
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Give one reason as to why they demanded for these changes.
a. National shock. b. The realisation by troops that the war was over. c. Increasing anger over socio-economic reforms.
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What did the SPD want to do in Ebert's coalition?
Create a socialist republic by the introduction of a parliamentary democracy.
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What did the USPD want to do in Ebert's coalition?
They wanted to create a socialist republic governed by the workers and soldiers councils in conjunction with a parliament.
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What did the Spartacists want to do in Ebert's coalition?
they wanted to create a soviet style republic governed by the workers and soldiers councils.
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Stinnes - Legien deal.
This established the principles of workers committees, an eight hour day and trade union negotiating rights.
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What is the definition of the Weimar Constitution?
Germany was declared a democratic state: it was a republic and it had a federal structure with seventeen lander.
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What percentage of land did German lose under the T of V?
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Who were the two leaders of the Kapp Putsch of March 1920?
Wolfgang Kapp and General Luttwitz.
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What did the Nazis feel 'nationalism' meant?
That all German people had a shared ethnicity, culture and set of beliefs, along with a glorious past.
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What did the Nazis feel 'socialism' meant?
This represented class harmony, service, obedience and hard work to the state.
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Explain the term Volksgemeinschaft.
The Nazis wanted to transform German society. They hoped to set up a racially pure state based on authoritarian lines, that was free of class struggle, alongside religious and political conflict, as people would be united behind their Fuhrer.
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How many SA men were involved in the Munich Putsch?
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How many Nazis were killed in the Munich Putsch?
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How many people were unemployed in the period 1924 - 29?
1.3 million
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How many countries signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact?
65, including Germany.
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When did Goebbels become in charge of the party propaganda machine?
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What happened to the banking sector after 1928?
It collapsed due to a loss of confidence.
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Why was Hermann Muller's government significant?
It was the last true parliamentary democracy. It marked the beginning of the decline of parliamentary democracy into a more presidential form of government.
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What party was Alfred Hugenburg a member of?
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What was the name of the NSDAP's temporary leader whilst Hitler was in prison?
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What was Hindenburg's son called?
Oskar von Hindenburg
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What was Papen's cabinet comprised of?
Aristocratic landowners and industrialists.
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After the 1932 elections, what did Papen propose?
The declaration of martial law and the establishment of a presidential dictatorship.
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Why was there a personal motive to Hitler's appointment as Chancellor?
In 1932 a Reichstag committee investigating the misuse of funds allocated to large landowners to help them stay afloat revealed that funds were being used for gambling and maintaining a lavish lifestyle.
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How many votes did the Nazis lose between July and November 1932?
2 million votes.
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Why were Nazi finances low by the end of 1932?
Due to the cost of competing in numerous elections.
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There were internal disagreements within the Nazis. Why?
Some in the party critised the SA's unruly behavior and it's lack of commitment the electioneering in November.
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Why did some middle-class voters lose support for the Nazis?
They were alienated by the Nazi moves to attract more working-class support.
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What was the Ebert-Groener deal?
The army was to be used to protect the new republic and maintain stability?
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What were the short and long term consequences of the Ebert-Groener deal?
Short: the republic had the protection of the army from any left wing uprisings. Long: the military elites were in a better position to undermine democracy.
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Why did the SPD and the Spartacists (later the KPD) not get on?
Ebert's suppression of the extreme left and his willingness to cooperate with the traditional elites was seen as an act of betrayal by the Spartacists.
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How many workers went on general strike during the Spartacist uprising of January 1919?
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Which party did Hugo Preuss belong to?
The DDP (centre)
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How often was a new President elected?
Every seven years.
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How often were the politicians of the Reichstag elected?
Every four years.
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The continuity of traditional institutions
The new Weimar Constitution made no provisions to reform the traditional institutions of imperial Germany. Therefore, they tended to conform to the conservative values of Imperial Germany.
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What did David Lloyd George want to make the Treaty of Versailles?
A compromise between the views of Woodrow Wilson and Georges Clemenceau. He was concerned that the French would gain too much power in Europe at Germany's expense.
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Summarise the losses of Germany as a result of the T of V.
Germany lost 12% of her population, 13% of her land, 15% of her agricultural land and up to 20% of her coal productions.
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What happened to the Saar under the peace treaty?
It became the property of the League of Nations.
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What happened to the Rhineland as a result of the peace treaty?
It became a demilitarised zone that acted as a buffer between France and Germany.
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What is a diktat, and why did the German people refer to the T of V as one?
A diktat is a dictated peace: they believed the peace treaty was imposed on Germany without negotiation.
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Why was Germany's treatment by the Allies viewed as unworthy?
They felt it was undignified for a great power.
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Why did the Kapp Putsch fail?
The left organised a general strike in Berlin: although Kapp's government had occupied government buildings, they could not govern and so after three days were forced to flee.
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What is one positive aspect of the Kapp Putsch?
The new Republic gained the backing of the workers of Berlin and withstood an attempted overthrow of the government.
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What is a negative aspect of the Kapp Putsch?
The army refused to support the Republic and fight the Freikorps. This revealed for the first time that right's lack of support in democracy.
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Where was Adolf Hitler born?
Braunau-Am-Inn in Austria.
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When did Hitler's father die?
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When did Hitler move to Vienna?
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During his six years spent in the Jewish Quarter and the slumps of Vienna, what feelings did Hitler develop?
Anti-democratic, Anti-Semitic and Anti-Marxist. He began to support racism and the idea of Pan Germanism.
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Why did Hitler join the DAP?
Due to their strong beliefs in nationalism, anti-Semitism and anti-Marxism.
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When was Hitler's first speech and what did he do?
Hitler's first speech was in October 1919, and he impressed all 111 people present, raising 300 marks for the party. His oratory, energy and propaganda skills soon had an impact on the small party.
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When did Hitler and Anton Drexler draw up the 25 point programme and change the name of the party?
February 1920.
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When did Hitler become leader of the Nazi party?
July 1921.
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Initially, he resigned. Why?
Some of the Nazi leaders disapproved of his methods of gaining support. They organised a merger with another right-wing party. Upon hearing this, and failing to dissuade negotiations, he resigned.
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When were the SA created and what was their initial role?
1921 - to protect the party and plan thuggery and violence.
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When did the Nazis establish their first newspaper?
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What does the term lebensraum mean?
The direct translation is 'living space'. The Nazis believed in territorial expansion, as they felt the land imposed on them by the Treaty of Versailles was not adequate to meet the needs of the German people.
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What is meant by the term Authoritarianism?
The hatred of democracy. It was instead believed that decisions should be dictated to people by strong leaders.
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Who were the two main figures of the Bavarian government in 1923?
General Gustav von Kahr and Otto von Lossow.
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When did Germany pay its first installment of reparations?
May 1921.
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Which groups were the worst hit by hyperinflation?
Those on fixed incomes or those who relied on savings, as the value of their money eroded.
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Who benefited from hyperinflation?
Business people and homeowners, who were able to pay off any loans, mortgages and debts with worthless and inflated money. Some also made financial gains by buying real estate off the financially desperate.
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How did Paul von Hindenburg's appointment as Chancellor benefit the political stability of the Weimar regime?
His appointment made democracy more respectable amongst the elites.
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What happened to the Z party during the 1920's?
It shifted to the right, suggesting a loss of faith in democracy.
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Why were the right wing particularly hostile towards the policies and aims of Gustav Stresemann?
They believed opposition towards the Treaty should be absolute.
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What were the benefits of the Dawes Plan, 1924?
Improved relations and trade with the USA, made Germany's economic situation known on an international level, and injected cash into the economy, allowing the reconstruction of Germany industry to begin.
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What were Hitler's three main aims for consolidating his position in 1925 - 29?
1. Removing people that had become a liability to the movement. 2. Neutralising internal opposition. 3. Building up a loyal band of supporters.
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How did Hitler solve the struggles between the Nazis of the North and the South?
He sent Gregor Strasser to reorganise the Nazis of the North.
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The Nazis developed a strong propaganda message that appealed to a mass audience. Give examples of what they promised.
They promised to create jobs, replace democracy with strong leadership, restore hope, and in the future, rebuild Germany's glorious past.
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Give an example of a Nazi Organisation and what they did.
THE NAZI WELFARE ORGANISATION - they set up food kitchens and distributed food in order to help those in need.
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How were businesses affected by the Wall Street Crash?
Many shut down as there was less demand for non essential items. This added to the increasing levels of unemployment.
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White collar workers were affected by the Wall Street Crash for the first time. How?
From small shopkeepers to professionals in law and medicine, there was less demands for their goods or practices. The decline in their economic position was worsened by the loss of pride and respectability.
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How happened to the vote for the Nazis in the regional elections of May 1928?
Their vote trebled and for the first time they broke the 10 percent barrier. This showed the Nazis for the first time that they could exploit declining economic situations.
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What was the 'National Opposition'?
It was a committee of right wing parties, led by DNVP leader and media tycoon Alfred Hugenburg, that denounced reparation payments and in December 1929 gained enough support to evoke a National referendum.
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Who maneuvered Bruning into office?
A select circle of political intriguers, such as Oskar von Hindenburg and Kurt von Schleicher.
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When was Bruning's budget rejected in the Reichstag?
July 1930.
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How did Papen take advantage of the election campaign of July 1932?
The election campaign was brutal and there were political fights. Papen exploited this decline in law and order to use A48 to abolish Prussia's regional state government and appoint himself as Reich Minister. This was an unconstitutional act.
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Why did Strasser leave the party in December 1932?
Strasser had responded positively to Schleicher's offer of Vice-Chancellor. However, Hitler was adamant that it was Chancellor or nothing: the majority of the Nazis remained loyal to Hitler and so Strasser resigned.
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What was Papen's plan that he proposed to Hindenburg in December 1932?
To make Hitler Chancellor, with him as Vice-Chancellor and a maximum of two Nazis in the cabinet. This way, they falsely believed he would be a 'chancellor in chains'.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What caused the Wall Street Crach of October 1929?


The collapse of the New York Stock Exchange.

Card 3


By what percentage did the value of German exports decrease by 1932?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What percentage of the votes did the Nazis receive in the May 1928 elections?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


When did Gustav Stresemann die?


Preview of the front of card 5
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