week 7: social leadership

Whom provided the leadership definition for social psychology?
Chemers, 2011
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What is leadership? (chemers)
A process of social influence using others int eh attainment of a collective goal.
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What was the first theoretical approx to assessing leaders?
Great Person Theory
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What is great person theory?
The first theoretical approach that states leadership is innate characteristics.
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What type of personality dimensions were identified in "great person theory"
Big five
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What are the Big Five personality dimensions in Great Person Theory?
Extraversion, Agreeableness, Emotional stability, Intellect, Conscientiousness
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What are the personality traits identified in the dark triad of leadership?
Narcissism, Machiavellian, Psychopathy
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What was the second theory of assessing leaders?
Situational Perspectives
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What did situational perspectives believe about leadership?
It reflects situational demands but personal qualities play a role
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What are extreme situational perspective beliefs about leaders?
Rejects any form of leadership
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What was situational perspective research evidence for situational and individual factors involved in leadership?
Research on victor in battles and armies
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What are autocratic leaders?
Leaders who use giving orders a lot to followers
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What are democratic leaders?
Leaders who use a style based on consultation, obtaining agreement and consent from followers.
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What are Laissez-Faire leaders?
Leaders whom have disinterest and minimal intervention
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In Lippitts and Whites study, what leadership type was liked the most?
Democratic
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In Lippitts and Whites study, what leadership type had a task-orientated group atmosphere?
Democratic
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In Lippits and Whites study, what leadership type had an aggressive / self-orientated group atmosphere?
Autocratic
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In Lippits and Whites study, what leadership type had high productivity when the leader was present?
Autocratic
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In Lippits and Whites study, what leadership type had high productivity regardless of leaders presence?
Democratic
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In Lippits and Whites study, what leadership type had a play orientated group atmosphere?
Laissez Faire
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What are contingency theories?
Assessing leaders effectiveness on the contingency of the nature of the leadership situation.
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According to contingency theories, what must good leaders be able to do?
Accomodate to circumstance
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Whom was the first contingency theory by?
Fiedler 1964
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What did Fiedler and his first contingency theory do?
It distinguished between task-orientated leaders and relationship-orientated ones.
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How did Fiedler measure leadership types?
LPC scale : Least Preferred Co-worker
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What does a high LPC scale score reveal?
Relationship orientated leader
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What does a low LPC scale score reveal?
Task orientated leader
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What concept did Fiedler use to make leadership effectiveness predictions?
Situational controls
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What is a negative of contingency theories?
They neglect the group process responsible for leaders rise and fall.
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What is normative decision theory?
A contingency theory identifying 3 decision making strategies that leaders choose: autocratic, consultative, group decision.
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What is path goal theory?
A contingency theory which focuses on how structuring and consideration behaviours motivates followers.
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What are transactional leaders?
They focus on the process of exchange between leader and follower
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What leadership type does idiosyncrasy credit play a role in?
Transactional
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What is idiosyncrasy credit (Hollander)?
How followers reward leaders for achieving group goals via their distinctiveness.
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What is a transformational leader?
A leader who appeal to followers self interest via their charisma
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What is the social identity theory of leadership?
It is an identity process in which salient groups prototypical leaders are more effective.
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What can an effective leader turn individual action into?
group action
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What does prototypes define the group as?
Ones identity as a group member.
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What is Kogans and Wallachs risky shift explanation?
the tendency for group discussion to produce group decisions that are more risky.
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What were the findings of Kogans and Wallachs risky shift scenario of group decision making?
group discussion facilitates creative thinking.
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What did Stroebe and Diehl believe about brainstorming and creativity?
individuals are no more creative in a brainstorming group than alone.
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What factors explain why brainstorming doesn't work effectively?
evaluation apprehension, social loafing, production matching, production blocking.
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Why does evaluation apprehension explain why brainstorming is ineffective at generating creativity?
because people want to make a good impression so stick to what they know = reduction in productivity.
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Why does production blocking affect creativity from brainstorming?
there is interruptions and contending with other group members making it hard to produce innovative ideas.
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Why is production matching an explanation of the ineffectiveness of brainstorming and creativity?
There is a regression to the norm mean = no new ideas.
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Why dies social loafing / free riding factor for the ineffectiveness of brainstorming and creativity?
there is a motivation loss due to the belief others will do the work.
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How can production blocking be overcome?
electronic brainstorming and/or heterogeneous groups.
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Who termed 'group think'?
Janis
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What is group think?
A model of thinking in highly cohesive groups for unanimous agreement overriding proper rationale decision making.
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What method did Janis use to coin the term group think?
Archival method
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What archival research did Janis investigate to coin the term group think?
1961 Bay of Pigs Fiasco
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What are the antecedents of group think?
excessive cohesiveness, high stress of task, Homogenety ideology
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What are the symptoms of group think?
unquesting behaviour, stereotyping outgroups, pressure on dissidents.
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How can you prevent group think?
encouraging critical evaluation
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is leadership? (chemers)

Back

A process of social influence using others int eh attainment of a collective goal.

Card 3

Front

What was the first theoretical approx to assessing leaders?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is great person theory?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What type of personality dimensions were identified in "great person theory"

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Preview of the front of card 5
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