Weber: Religion as a force for change

HideShow resource information
What is the name of the book that Weber wrote about Calvinism?
"The protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism."
1 of 34
What does Weber believe helped bring about the emergence of capitalism in Northern Europe in the 16th and 17th century?
The religious beliefs of Calvinism (a form of protestantism founded by John Calvin during the protestant reformation.)
2 of 34
Weber notes that many past societies had capitalism in the sense of ...
..greed for wealth (which they often spent on luxury consumption.)
3 of 34
However, how does modern capitalism differ?
It is based on the systematic, efficient, rational pursuit of wealth for it's own sake, rather than for the purpose of consumption.
4 of 34
What does Weber call this?
"The spirit of capitalism."
5 of 34
What does Weber mean when he says that the spirit of capitalism has an 'ellective affinity,' to calvinist beliefs and attitudes?
This means that they have an unconscious similarity.
6 of 34
What 4 distinctive beliefs do calvisinists have?
1. Predestination 2. Divine transcendence 3. Asceticism 4. the idea of a vocation or calling.
7 of 34
Predestination is the idea that God has predetermined which...
...souls would be saved (the elect) and which souls would not before birth.
8 of 34
This means that individuals can do nothing whatsoever to...
...change this.
9 of 34
Divine transcendence is the belief that God is so far and beyond this world and so incomparably greater than any mortal that...
...no human can claim to know his will.
10 of 34
What does this lead calvinists to feel?
An unprecedented inner lonliness.
11 of 34
What did predestination combined with this inner lonliness create?
A salvation panic.
12 of 34
What is a salvation panic?
This is when people would panic because they couldn't know if they would be saved/ damned and not do anything to earn their salvation.
13 of 34
What is asceticism?
This refers to abstinence/self-discipline/self-denial.
14 of 34
Before Calvinism, what did the idea of a religious vocation mean?
Renuncing everyday life to join a convent or monastery.
15 of 34
What does Weber call this type of asceticism?
Other-worldy aceticism.
16 of 34
What type of asceticism did Calvinism introduce for the first time?
This worldly aceticism.
17 of 34
What was the only thing calvinists knew of God's plan for humanity?
That humans were put on earth to glorify God's name by our work.
18 of 34
Therefore, what did a calling or religious vocation mean for calvinists?
Constant, methodical work in an occupation.
19 of 34
However, it is clear to remember that work cannot earn salvation but people simply did it...
...out of religious duty.
20 of 34
This made idleness a...
..sin.
21 of 34
For example: Calvinist Benjamin Franklin says:
"Lose no time; always be employed in something useful."
22 of 34
The calvinists' wealth and success performed a psychological function that helped to cope with their...
...salvation panic.
23 of 34
They took their increasing wealth as a sign of...
...God's favour and salvation.
24 of 34
Secondly, driven by their work ethic, they accumulated wealth in the most...
...rational and efficient means possible.
25 of 34
By the calvinists not permitting themselves to squander their profit on luxuries...
....they reinvested it into their businesses which grew and prospered more.
26 of 34
In Weber's view, the object to simply aquire more and more money as an end in itself is...
...the very spirit of modern capitalism.
27 of 34
Therefore, capitalism as we know it was brought into the world by...
...Calvinism.
28 of 34
However, it is very important to remember that Calvinism was not the soul...
...cause of modern capitalism but one of its causes.
29 of 34
Actually, a number of factors were needed both...
...material and economic.
30 of 34
Such as:
Natural resources/ trade/ money economies.
31 of 34
On the other hand, Weber notes that there have been other societies that have a higher level of economic development tha Northern Europe in the 16th and 17th century and have still failed to...
...develop capitalism.
32 of 34
For example: He argues that in Ancient India and China were,...
...materially more advanced than Europe but capitalism did not take off there.
33 of 34
Why did capitalism in Ancient India and China (according to Weber) fail ?
A lack of a religious belief system (such as calvinism) to spurr it's development.
34 of 34

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does Weber believe helped bring about the emergence of capitalism in Northern Europe in the 16th and 17th century?

Back

The religious beliefs of Calvinism (a form of protestantism founded by John Calvin during the protestant reformation.)

Card 3

Front

Weber notes that many past societies had capitalism in the sense of ...

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

However, how does modern capitalism differ?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does Weber call this?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all Religion and beliefs resources »