Weather and Climate (part 1)

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What is convectional rainfall?
When the land warms up, it heats the air above it. This causes the air to expand and rise. As the air rises it cools and condenses.
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What is relief rainfall?
When wet onshore wind from the sea meets a mountain, hill or any other sort of barrier, it is forced to rise along the slope and cools. When the air temperature falls to its dew point, water vapour condenses to form clouds.
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What is frontal rainfall?
Frontal rain occurs when two air masses meet. When a warm air mass meets a cold air mass, they don't mix as they have different densities. Instead, the warm less dense air is pushed up over the cold dense air creating the '
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What factors affect weather?
1. Air masses 2. Latitude 3. Distance from the sea 4. Altitude 5. Aspect
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How do air masses affect weather?
Air masses can bring anything from tropical warm and humid days to arctic cold depending on the type of air mass. Fronts form the boundaries of air masses with differing properties.
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How does latitude affect weather?
Temperatures drop the further an area is from the equator due to the curvature of the earth. In areas closer to the poles, sunlight has a larger area of atmosphere to pass through and the sun is at a lower angle in the sky.
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How does the distance from the sea affect the weather of an area?
Oceans heat up and cool down much more slowly than land. This means that coastal locations tend to be cooler in summer and warmer in winter than places inland at the same latitude and altitude.
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How does altitude affect weather?
Locations at a higher altitude have colder temperatures. Temperature usually decreases by 1°C for every 100 metres in altitude. This is because when air rises it cools down.
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How does aspect affect weather?
In the UK, north facing slopes receive less sunlight than south facing slopes.
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What are depressions?
Areas of low atmospheric pressure which produce cloudy, rainy and windy weather.
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What happens to the clouds during a depression?
The height of the cloud decreases and the thickness of the cloud increases as it gets closer to the front.
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What are anticyclones?
Areas of high atmospheric pressure which bring long periods of steady dry weather. They stay in an area for a long time preventing depressions from coming in.
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What happens during a summer anticyclone?
1. The wind is usually from the east 2. This brings long spells of dry weather with no cloud 3. Temperatures rise rapidly during the day as the sun is high in the sky and there are no clouds to block it
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What are summer anticyclones usually called?
A heatwave.
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What happens during a winter anticyclone?
1. Clear skies and easterly winds bring freezing air from across Europe and Siberia 2. Clear skies mean that at night the temperatures plummet 3. Night after night the temperature continues to fall 4. Sun is low as it barely rises
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is relief rainfall?

Back

When wet onshore wind from the sea meets a mountain, hill or any other sort of barrier, it is forced to rise along the slope and cools. When the air temperature falls to its dew point, water vapour condenses to form clouds.

Card 3

Front

What is frontal rainfall?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What factors affect weather?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How do air masses affect weather?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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