Weather and Climate

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  • Created by: EllenMIW
  • Created on: 02-01-16 15:53
The day to day conditions of the atmosphere. It an include temperature, precipitation, cloud, sunshine and wind for a location.
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The average weather of a location recorded over at least 30 years
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The term used for all types of moisture falling from the atmosphere
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UK climate in January
West and south warmer than north and east, upland cooler than lowland
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UK climate in July
South warmer than north, upland cooler than lowland
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Precipitation in UK
Least in south and south west, most in west and north west, west has more than east
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Sunshine hours in UK
Central and north western Scotland have least, south more than north, coast more than inland, south coast has most
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Exposure to Sun's rays
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Factors affecting climate
Latitude, continentality, prevailing winds, air pressure, altitude, ocean currents
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Closer to sea= moderate climate
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Moderate climate
Cooler summers and warmer winters
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Prevailing winds influence temp. through...
Direction of blowing, whether maritime or continental area
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Air pressure
The number of air molecules in an area - more air molecules means more energy can be held in the air
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Low pressure=
Unsettled weather, in equatorial band and mid-latitudes
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High pressure=
Settled weather, in polar regions
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Average temp. loss 1 degree for 100m climbed
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An area of low atmospheric pressure, which forms at the boundary between cold polar air moving south and warm tropical air moving north
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Pressure changes during passage of depression
Falls steadily, continues to fall, steadies, starts to rise, continues to rise
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Temperature changes during passage of depression
Quite cold but starts to rise, continues to rise, quite mild, suddenly drops, remains cold
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Cloud cover changes during passage of depression
Cloud base drops and thickens, cloud base is low and thick, cloud may thin and break, clouds thicken, clouds thin
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Wind changes during passage of depression
Speeds increase, becomes blustery and changes direction, lowers and remains steady, increaases sometimes gale force with sharp change in direction, squally
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Some gusts of wind but not very strong and not as often
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Precipitation changes during passage of depression
None at first sometimes snow on leading edge, continues sometimes heavy rainfall, turns to drizzle or stops, heavy rain sometimes hail thunder or sleet, showers
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An anticyclone occurs when...
Cold, dry air sinks towards the ground, causing high pressure. There are no clouds.
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What kind of weather can anticyclones bring?
Heat waves, sunny clear skies, drought, cold snaps, frost, fog
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2003 Summer Heatwave
Strong unprecedented warming trend since 1977, causes not yet known but climate change assumed, hottest summer in 500 years
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2006 London Tornado
Heavy rain and sleet, debris flew through air, collapsed scaffolding and buildings, lots of energy in air producing widespread thunder, searched 100 houses 6 injured houses and cars damaged
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2007 Summer Floods
Severn and Thames overflowed for several days, poor drainage and flood defences and houses built on flood plains, lots of emergency help, people without water and electricity
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2009 Winter Snow
Heavy snowfall esp. in Wales, clear skies so hard frosts and excessive snow, schools and hospitals closed, frozen pipes and ice in marinas
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Causes of climate change
Volcanic eruptions, more active sun, greenhouse gases, natural occurrence, ocean cycles
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Evidence for global warming
Thermometers, historical records, ic cores, sea-floor sediment samples, retreating glaciers, seasonal patterns changing
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Economic consequences of global warming
Longer growing season, grow crops in milder climate, cereal yields decrease, loss of glaciers threatens agricultural water
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Social consequences of global warming
Few injuries due to cold weather, more risk of malaria
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Environmental consequences of global warming
Grow crops in milder climate, landslides floods and avalanches more common, Tuvalu covered by rising seas
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Local responses to climate change
Local seasonal food, reduction of waste, shorter distances to public services, congestion charging, Adapting buildings, different crops
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Kyoto Protocol
1997, 150 nations, cut emissions, trade carbon credits. Overachieved targets, but still small % of total action needed
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Causes of hurricanes
27 degree sea, 60m deep, 5 to 15 degrees from equator as earth's rotation makes them spin
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Tropical storm formation
Ocean as fuel, converging winds above ocean, Coriolis effect
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Structure of hurricane
Temperature and pressure falls wind gusts, pressure falls rapidly wind speeds up to 100kph, calm, pressure rises torrential rain hurricane force winds, pressure an temp rise winds decrease
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The average weather of a location recorded over at least 30 years

Card 3




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Card 4


UK climate in January


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Card 5


UK climate in July


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