Wealth, Happiness and Health

Does more money make you happier?
Overall conclusion that income is a small but very robust predictor of life satisfaction
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What do losses do?
Loom larger than gain, therefore need to consider losses as well as gain
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What is the question ready to ask?
Does loosing money make you more unhappy
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What is prospect theory and loss aversion?
Losses have twice the impact on utility (positive mood, wellbeing) than equivlent gains
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What is loss aversion deemed?
'Universal'
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What is conscientiousness accompanied by?
Rigidity of thought and obsessiveness. Such factors may be particularly problematic when a desired outcome is not achieved or is lost
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What do conscientious individuals do?
Place great value on economic outcomes
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What do conscientious individuals put more effort into?
Achieving their goals the loss of that outcome might be appraised as due to lack of their own ability
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Therefore?
Losses loom larger for those higher in conscientiousess
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Conscientiousness, loss aversion and happiness (Boyce, Wood and Ferguson, 2015)
Based on a representative sample of 105,558 Germans, losses loom larger and more so for those high in conscientiousness
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For better or for worse: Personality, marriage and happiness
Per-marriage personality to predict life satisfaction before and during marriage
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Whatt happens at 7 years post marriage/
catch up effect
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Why?
Conscientious individuals place more value on relationship goals may strive harder to ensure success
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For women, what is associated with increased satisfaction across marriage?
Introversion
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What is it for men?
Extraversion
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Why?
One possibility is that women and men have different motivations, or extraversion is linked to status
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How can personality change?
Conditioning, bodily awareness, symptom reporting --> doctor patient interaction and treatment seeking --> Compliance --> Pathogenesis --> mortality
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Symptom reporting?
Do we all report symptoms the same, if not, why dont we report the same level of symptoms
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What is the first method?
Viral challenging studies: Expose 50% to a pathogen and 50% to a placebo, keep in isolation and examine for 1 to 2 weeks
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What is a Quasi-experiment?
Examine people at high and low stress times. Usually done on the same students during exams and vacation times
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Case control designs?
Compare high stressed to low stressed groups (E.G carers)
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What is disease verification?
Signs (Clinical blood tests), symptoms (what people report)
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What are the covariates?
Age, time of the year, nutrition, depression etc. all of which will affect susceptibility to diseases and its progression
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What is sub clinical and clinical infection?
May have infection (blood test) but no symptoms
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What are counts or reactivity to antigen?
Number of immune cells (high-fighting infection) and reactivity (how quickly they kill off infection)
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Feldman et al (1999)
Viral challenge study - 50% of subjects given a virus and observed and measured for objective as well as subjective markers of illness
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Symptoms?
Interactions with objective illness status
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Those high in neuroticism report?
More symptoms and more severe symptoms whether or not they are actually ill
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Those high in openness report?
More symptoms than those low in openness only when objective cold are presents
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What does neuroticism lead to?
More symptom reporting
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What does conscientiousness lead to?
More illness reporting
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Actually having cold leads to?
More symptoms and illness reporting
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What does high negative affect, akin to neuroticism lead to?
greater reporting symptoms but not more actual colds
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On the positive side, what?
Positive affect, akin to extraversion, leads to fewer actual colds and fewer symptoms
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What is positive affect related to?
Better sleep and diet and lower cortisol
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Larsen (1992): encoding and or recall of symptoms
Measure: neuroticism, people high in N recall symptoms as worse than they actually were
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What is recall phase?
recall the number and severity of symptom from previous 3 months
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This leads to encoding phase?
REcord symptoms each day for 3 months
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What is Lazarus's transactional model?
Emotions, events and personality, leads to 4 basic control methods, primary appraisal (is the situation threatening?), secondary appraisal (is it controllable?), Coping (What do i do?), outcome
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Personality and occupational stress: Ferguson et al (2006)
Perceived negative characteristics --> Initial symptoms --> negative oriented personality --> future symptoms
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What is neuroticism?
Both indirectly and directly influences future symptoms reports
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Coping (Connor-Smith and flachsbart, 2007)
Extraversion, conscientiousness and opennes are linked to overall engagement coping strategies which are benefitical to health
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What is neuroticism associated with?
disengagement strategies which are not benefitical to health
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Associative processes
Can we learn to be sick?
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What is an example of conditioned sickness?
Flavour aversion model
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for example?
CS(environmental fumes) UCS(Pesticides, immunisations etc) --> UCR (sickness response), CS (environmental fumes) ------> UCR (sickness response)
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What is lab studies find?
Learning: pair odour and symptoms (CO2 enriched air), test - odour causes symptoms, respiratory, generalise, effects stronger for high N, no attributable to continguency awareness
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field based studies (Gulf war syndrome)
Assess odour severity and duration and symptoms each day, find lagge effects for odour severity, more severe odours cause increased symptoms on subsequent day
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How do we train our medical profession?
Performance and training, we are interested in performance or are we interested in traing (How well you learn to do the job)
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What are the within job changes?
The nature of the job is likely to change as technology develop and as your skills as an employee change and you are promoted
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What was the job performance?
Spatial, verbal, numerical, cognitive ability
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What was the training?
Numerical, cognitive, perceptual, verbal, spatial
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What was the rating of job performance?
Agreeableness, openness, Extrovertism, Neuroticism, Conscientiousness and the cognitive ability
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Iq, personality and selection and training into medicine
Can we use traits to improve who we select to study medicine, can we use traits to improve how we train medics
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What is the outcome we are trying to predict?
Is it ability to pass exams or to identify who will be a good doctor, passing exams is only a part of this, what are the qualities of a good doctor, need to identify these and then identify ways to assessment that are fair
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What is conscientiousness?
Initially a positive predictor of exams but as the role changes and become less order and more stressful it becomes a negative predictor
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How is knowledge important?
A levels only predict early exam performance and clinical ability
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What was personal statements
Had no predictive validity
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Ferguson et al (2014)
Iq enhance GCSE and Pre-clinical performance
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What does conscientiousness increase?
They enhance A level and preclinical performance but inhibits clinical knowledge
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What can enhance clinical skills?
A little anxiety
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What is Task analysis example?
UGRA, ultrasound guided regional anesthesia
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What should be important?
Being able to navigate a 3D world VIA a 2D image where the orientation is often off plane, mental rotation skills would seem appropriate
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How is performance measure?
Turkey breast task: Turkey breast/olive model, perform UGRA task while observed and scored for errors and good performance
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How is the errors assessed?
Visuo spatial ability as a predictor of novice performance in ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia
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Assess what?
Good performance: Global rating scale
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What did we asses?
MRT and UGRA skills in 60 undergraduate novice medical students
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What are the implications?
Do we select on MRT skills? (there are known sex differences) can we train people to have good MRT skills
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Molloy, O'carroll and Ferguson, 2014
Why dont we take the medicines we are told to in the way we are told to?
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What did they find?
Depression, Conscientiousness are most likely to lead to compliance, whereas familu conflict doesnt
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Pathogeneis?
Why doesnt disease progress the same for everyone?
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What was found?
High antibody responses are beneficial when fighting illness, these results show that for those high in neuroticism antibody responses are lower then those lower in neuroticism
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what are the health behaviours?
Many illness are affected by life style, we can change our behaviours to reduce our risks, so why dont we?
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What are the health behaviours?
Smoking, alcohol, diet, exercise, sex, risk taking, sleep and drugs
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Personality
N= traffic risk, E=exercise, sex, O= drug taking, sex, A= accident control, C- wellness behaviours
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IQ mechanisms?
Physical and social disadvantage, physiological system integrity, health behaviours, entry to safe jobs
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Longevity and mortality
Mortality
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People with a high conscientiousness what?
High C die slower
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IQ?
High IQ die slower
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Mroczek and Spiro (2007)
High neuroticism die quicker
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What is more likely to lead to mortality?
Smoking and inactivity
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What is type D?
Distressed personality
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What are two major facets?
Negative affect and social inhibition
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What does each facet has?
smaller facets, NA: dysphoria and Tension/worry, SI, REticence and withdrawal
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What are independent risk factor?
Heart disease
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What is the physiology?
Cortisol: type D facets are higher cortisol reactivity, TNF: higher for Type D (ES=.90)
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What is vital exhaustion?
D=distressed, experience negative emotions, and inhibit social expression, type D also linked to cancer with an OR of 7.2
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What is prediction of CHD and cancer?
Mortality following MI has an OR of 4.1 to 8.9 on high type D
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What is the disadvantage?
Some traits that are generally seen as good (conscientiousness, may carry negative such as seen in loss aversion and medical training
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What are the positives?
Some traits that are generally seen as bad (neuroticism may carry benefits such as seen in medical training
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Card 2

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What do losses do?

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Loom larger than gain, therefore need to consider losses as well as gain

Card 3

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What is the question ready to ask?

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Card 4

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What is prospect theory and loss aversion?

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Card 5

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What is loss aversion deemed?

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