Waves

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What causes waves?
waves are formed by the wind as it blows over the sea.
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Why are some waves bigger than others?
This depends on: how strong the wind is, how long it blows for and how far the wave travels.
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What is fetch?
The distance the wind blows over the sea.
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Destructive waves?
weak swash, strong backwash. Remove material from the beach.
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Constructive waves?
Strong swash, weak backwash. Brings material to the beach.
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How is the coast eroded?
Hydraulic action, abrasion and attrition.
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What is hydraulic action?
Water is forced into cracks in the rock. This compresses the air inside. When the wave retreats, the compressed air blasts out, forcing rock apart.
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What is abrasion?
Loose rocks (sediment) are thrown against the cliff by waves. It wears the cliff away.
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What is Attrition?
Sediment collides with sediment and gradually gets worn down into smaller and rounder sediment.
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What landforms are caused by erosion?
Cliffs, wave cut platforms, headlands + bays, caves, arches and stacks.
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How are cliffs formed?
Waves hit the bottom of the cliff eroding a notch. The cliff above the notch is undercut and the overhanging rock eventually falls.
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How are wave cut platforms formed?
As the cliff erodes, it leaves behind flat rocks and rock pools which make up the platform
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How are headlands and bays formed?
If the coast is made of alternating soft and hard bands of rock, destructive waves will erode the soft rock to form bays and coves. The more resistant rock sticks out forming headlands.
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Caves?
A joint or fault in resistant rock. Abrasion and hydraulic action widen the joint into a cave.
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Arches?
Waves make the cave larger until it cuts through the headland to make an arch
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Stacks?
The arch is eroded and the roof becomes too heavy and collapses to a stack. This eventually gets eroded into a stump
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why are some waves bigger than others?

Back

This depends on: how strong the wind is, how long it blows for and how far the wave travels.

Card 3

Front

What is fetch?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Destructive waves?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Constructive waves?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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