# Waves

What do waves do?
Transfer energy from one place to another without transferring matter
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What is amplitude?
Maximum displacement of a wave from its undisturbed position
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What is wavelength?
The distance from one point of one wave to the same point on the adjacent wave
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What is frequency?
The number of complete waves passing a point in a second
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What is frequency measured in?
Hertz (Hz)
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What is Wave speed measured in?
m/s (metres per second)
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What is wavelength measured in?
m (metres)
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What is the formula to find the time period of a wave?
t = 1/f (time period = 1 divided by frequency)
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What are mechanical waves?
Vibrations that travel through a medium
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Give three examples of a mechanical wave?
Sound, Water waves and Seismic P-waves
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What are electromagnetic waves?
Travel at the speed of light through a vacuum
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Give three examples of an electromagnetic wave?
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What is a transverse wave?
Vibration is at a right angle to the direction of energy transfer
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What is a longitudinal wave?
Vibration is parallel to the direction of energy transfer
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What is a normal?
A line at 90 degrees to the boundary
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What is the angle of incidence?
The angle between the normal and the incident ray of light
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What is the angle of reflection?
The angle between the normal and the reflected ray
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The angle of incident and reflection are ???? for a plane mirror
Equal
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What are the qualities of an image in a plane mirror?
Upright, Laterally inverted, virtual and the same distance behind the mirror as infront
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Sound travels through ?????? causing ?????????? in the ?????
solids, vibrations, solid
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The human ear can detect a range of ????????? ranging from ???? to ???????
Frequencies, 20hz, 20,000hz
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Sound is a ??????? type of wave
Mechanical
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Why is the human hearing range limited?
Conversion of sound waves to vibrations in a solid can only work in a limited frequency range
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What can ultrasound be useful for?
Detection of structures/objects that cannot be seen by the eye
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Why can ultrasound not be heard by humans?
The frequency of the sound waves are much too high above our hearing range
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How does ultrasound work?
It creates echoes and can help detect structures or depths
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What is the formula for finding the depth of something using ultrasound?
depth = 0.5 x wave speed x time for echo to return
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Seismic waves are produced by ?????????, the types of seismic wave are ?-?????, ?-????? and ?-?????
Earthquakes, P-waves, S-waves ,L-waves
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State the properties of a P-wave
Longitudinal, Travel through solids and liquids, are the fastest of seismic waves
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State the properties of a S-wave
Transverse, Travel through solids only, slower than P-waves
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State the properties of a L-wave
Slowest of seismic waves, Move the Earth's crust in all directions
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How do seismic waves provide evidence for the structure and size of the Earth's core?
Because of the waves being absorbed or refracted.
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

What is amplitude?

#### Back

Maximum displacement of a wave from its undisturbed position

### Card 3

#### Front

What is wavelength?

### Card 4

#### Front

What is frequency?

### Card 5

#### Front

What is frequency measured in?