Water on the land questions

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: _Holly
  • Created on: 03-06-13 17:45
What does a river's long profile show?
The gradient (steepness) of the river and how it changes over the different courses
1 of 30
Describe the cross profile of a river's lower source
The valley is very wide and almost flat and the channel shape is very wide and deep
2 of 30
Name the river course where vertical erosion is dominant
The upper course
3 of 30
Define Hydraulic action
The force of the water breaks rock particles away from the river channel
4 of 30
Define abrasion
Eroded rocks picked up by the river scrape and rub against the channel, wearing it away. Most erosion happens by abrasion.
5 of 30
Define attrition
Eroded rocks picked up by the river smash into each other and break into smaller pieces. Their edges get rounded off as they rub together.
6 of 30
Define solution
River water dissolves some types of rock, e.g. mchalk and limestone
7 of 30
Name the 4 processes of transportation
Traction, Saltation, Suspension and Solution
8 of 30
When does deposition occur?
When a river drops the eroded material it's transporting when the river slows down
9 of 30
Where is a current fastest on a meander?
On the outside of the bend because the river channel is faster and there's less friction to slow the water down
10 of 30
Name the landform created when a meander is cut off due to deposition
Ox-Bow lakes
11 of 30
Where do waterfalls form?
Where a river flows over an area of hard rock followed by an area of soft rock
12 of 30
How is a gorge formed?
When a waterfall is formed, the hard rock collapses and so the waterfall retreats up the river over time, more undercutting causes more collapses so the waterfall will leave behind a steep-sided gorge
13 of 30
What is a flood plain?
A wide valley floor on either side of the river which occasionally gets flooded
14 of 30
How are levees formed?
During a flood, eroded material is deposited over the whole flood plain. The heaviest material is deposited closest to the river channel because it gets dropped first when the river slows down. Over time the material builds up creating levees.
15 of 30
What do the contour lines on a map show?
They tell you the height and the steepness of land so can show which direction the river is flowing by which way is downhill
16 of 30
Give 2 pieces of map evidence for a waterfall
Close contour lines and the symbol for a cliff (black, blocky lines)
17 of 30
Give 2 pieces of map evidence for the river's lower course
The nearby land is low, the river may join a lake or sea
18 of 30
What is river discharge?
The volume of water flowing through a river
19 of 30
How does impermeable rock affect river discharge?
Water can't soak into impermeable rock so there's a lot of runoff. Lag time is decreased so discharge increases
20 of 30
Describe 2 physical factors that can cause floods
Prolonged rainfall makes the soil saturated so there is more runoff into rivers which increases the discharge which can cause a flood. If a river is in a steep-sided valley, water will reach the river faster because water flows faster on steep slopes
21 of 30
Describe 1 human factor that can cause floods
Building construction. Buildings and roads are made from impermeable materials, ie concrete, which increases the surface runoff and drains the water into rivers quickly. This increases the discharge quickly which increases the chance of a flood
22 of 30
Define hard engineering
Man-made structures built to control the flow of rivers and reduce flooding, e.g. Dams and reservoirs and channel straightening
23 of 30
Define sort engineering
Schemes set up using knowledge of a river and its processes to reduce the effects of flooding, e.g. flood warnings and doing nothing
24 of 30
Describe how channel straightening reduces the risk of a flood
Meanders are cut out so water flows faster which reduces the risk of flooding.
25 of 30
Describe the disadvantages of flood warnings
Warnings don't stop a flood from happening. Living in a place that gets lots of flood warnings could increase insurance. People may not hear or have access to warnings
26 of 30
Which areas of the UK have a water deficit?
The south east and midlands, there's a greater demand than supply
27 of 30
Give one potential problem of water transfer
The dams and aqueducts (bridges to transport water) that are needed are expensive
28 of 30
What is meant by a sustainable water supply?
People should be able to get all the water they need today without stopping people in the future from having enough water. This means we should only use and take enough out of the reservoirs as we need.
29 of 30
How can water be taken from a reservoir in a sustainable way?
Fixing leaky pipes means less water is lost in transfer, reducing the demand by fixing water meters into people's houses so that less water is taken out of the reservoir
30 of 30

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Describe the cross profile of a river's lower source

Back

The valley is very wide and almost flat and the channel shape is very wide and deep

Card 3

Front

Name the river course where vertical erosion is dominant

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Define Hydraulic action

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Define abrasion

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

sam

Very helpful!

Good Luck for tomorrow! :) 

Mr A Gibson

Spot on - these are the definitions related to rivers that you need to be able to repeat and know what they mean. Get these printed off onto some card or scroll through them on your mobile device.

milikahyounas

very helpful! I've been using this for my EoY exams tomorrow. thx!

milikahyounas

very helpful! I've been using this for my EoY exams tomorrow. thx!

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Water and rivers resources »