Water on the land

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Upper course: gradient, valley and channel size?
Steep gradient, v-shaped valley, steep sides narrow, shallow channel
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Middle course: gradient, valley and channel size?
Gently sloping valley sides wider, deeper channel
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Lower course: gradient, valley and channel size?
Very wide, almost flat valley very wide, deep channel
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Vertical erosion
This deepens the river valley (and channel0 , making it v-shaped. It's dominant in the upper course.
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Lateral erosion
This widens the river valley (and channel). It's dominant in the middle and lower courses.
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What are the four processes of Erosion?
Hydraulic action, Abrasion, Attrition and Solution.
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Hydraulic action
The force of the water breaks rock particles away from the river channel.
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Abrasion
Eroded rocks picked up by the river scrape and rub against the channel, wearing it away. Most erosion happens by abrasion.
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Attrition
Eroded rocks picked up by the river smash into each other and break into smaller fragments. Their edges also get rounded off as they rub together.
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Solution
River water dissolves some types of rock, e.g. chalk and limestone.
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Transportation of eroded material?
Traction, Saltation, Suspension and Solution.
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Traction
Large particles like boulders are pushed along the river bed by the force of the water.
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Saltation
Pebbles-sized particles are bounced along the river bed by the force of water.
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Suspension
Small particles like silt and clay are carried along by the water.
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Solution
Soluble materials dissolve in the water and are carried along.
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Deposition
When a river drops the eroded material it's transporting. It happens when a river slows down (loses velocity)
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Why rivers slow down and deposit material?
The volume of water in the fever falls, The amount of eroded material in the water increases.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Gently sloping valley sides wider, deeper channel

Back

Middle course: gradient, valley and channel size?

Card 3

Front

Very wide, almost flat valley very wide, deep channel

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

This deepens the river valley (and channel0 , making it v-shaped. It's dominant in the upper course.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

This widens the river valley (and channel). It's dominant in the middle and lower courses.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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