Water on the land-Glossary

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  • Created by: Jordss
  • Created on: 25-04-14 17:17
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Where the river begins
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Mouth
Where the river ends
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Tributaries
Smaller rivers
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Confluence
Tributaries joining the main river
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Drainage basin
Area drained by its river and tributaries
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Channel
Area which contains the river
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Discharge
Volume of water passing through a river per second and is measured in cumes
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V shaped valley
Steep sided, narrow valley caused by vertical erosion found in the upper course
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Upper course
Found in the mountains and hills
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Interlocking spurs
Hard rock which the river flows around
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Hydronic action
Force of the water breaks rock particles away from the river channel
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Abrasion
River carries particles of sand and silt and moves pebbles and boulders at high flow, the material rubs against the bed and banks wearing it away
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Solution
River water dissolves some type of rock i.e. chalk and limestone
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Attrition
Eroded rocks picked up by the river and smash into one another and break into small fragments
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Transportation Traction
Large particles bounced along the river bed by the force of the water
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Saltation
Pebble sized particles bounced along the river bed by the force of the water
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Suspension
Small particles like silt and clay are carried along by the water
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Solution
Soluble materials dissolve in the water and are carried along
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Waterfall
Steep drop in the course of a river
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Gorge
Waterfall retreats to create a steep sided gorge
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Plunge pool
Area found directly below the plunge pool
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Meander
Bend in the river
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River cliff
Steep sided bank on the side of a river caused by erosion
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Slip off slope
Gentle slope where sand and pebbles are deposited
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Ox bow lake
Semi circular lake on the floodplain of a river
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Flood plain
Wide valley floor either side of the river
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Meander migration
Meanders moving across the flood plain to make it wider
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Levees
Natural embankments (raised bits) along the edges of a river
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Hydrograph
Graph to show discharge at a certain point over time
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Peak discharge
Highest discharge over the time you have been looking at
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Lag time
Delay between peak rainfall and peak discharge
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Rising limb
Increase in river discharge as rainwater flows into the river
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Falling limb
Decrease in river discharge as river returns to normal level
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Impermeable
Rock that doesn't allow water to soak through it
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Porous
Rock with spaces between particles
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Deforestation
Cutting down trees
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Urbanisation
Increase in the proportion of people living in the cities, resulting their growth
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Flashy
Hydrograph that responds quickly to a period of rain so characteristics are high peak and short lag time
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Relief
Height and shape of the land
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Flood
Where a river bursts it's banks
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Hard engineering
Man made structure built to control a river from flooding
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Soft engineering
Schemes using the knowledge of a river to reduce the chances of flooding
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Dams and reservoirs
Huge walls across a river with an artificial lake (dam) behind it
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Channel straightening
A rivers course is straightened- meanders are cut out
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Flood warning
TV, newspaper and radio broadcasts put out by environment agency
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Preparation
Buildings modified to prepare for floods
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Flood plain zoning
Restrictions to prevent building on parts of the river
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Where the river ends

Back

Mouth

Card 3

Front

Smaller rivers

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Tributaries joining the main river

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Area drained by its river and tributaries

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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