Water on the Land

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Channel
The part of the river valley occupied by the water itself.
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Hydraulic Action
The power of the volume of water moving in the river.
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Abrasion
Occurs when larger load carried by the river hits the bed and banks, causing sediment to break off.
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Attrition
Load carried by the river knocks into other parts of the load, so it breaks off and makes the material smaller.
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Solution
The dissolving of certain rocks such as chalk and limestoneby rainwater. This is a means of transportation aswell.
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Load
Material of any size carried by the river.
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Traction
The rolling along of the largest rocks and boulders.
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Saltation
The bouncing movement of small stones and grains of sand along the river bed.
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Suspension
Small material carried within the river.
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Long Profile
A line representing the course of the river from the source to its mouth where it ends.
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Cross Profile
A line that represents what it would be like to walk from one side of a valley, across the channel and up the other side.
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Waterfall
A sudden, and often vertical, drop of a river along its course.
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Gorge
A narrow, steep sided valley.
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Meander
A bend or curve in the river channel, often becoming sinuous where the loops are exaggerated.
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Oxbow Lake
A horse shoe or semi-circular area that represents the former course of a meander. They are cut off from a supply of water and will eventually become dry.
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Floodplain
A flat area of land adjacent to the the river channel. This is a natural area of land where overflowing water spills over into.
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Levees
Raised banks along the course of the river in its lower course. They are formed naturally.
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Discharge
The volume of water passing a given point in a river.
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Drainage Basin
Area from which a river gets its water. The boundary is marked with an imaginary line of highland known as a watershed.
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Storm Hydrograph
A line graph to show the discharge in a river in the aftermath of a period of rain.
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Relief
Height and slope of land.
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Impermeable
Rock that does not allow water to soak into it.
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Porous
Rock that has spaces between particles.
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Pervious
Rock that allows water to pass through it va vertical joints and horizontal bedding planes.
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Urbanisation
The increase in the proportion of people living in cities, resulting in their growth.
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Soil erosion
The removal of the layer of soil above the rock where plants grow.
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Hard Engineering
This strategy involves the use of technology in order to try to control rivers.
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Soft Engineering
Tries to work out trhe constraints of the natural river system and avoids building on areas, warning people of an impending flod and plant trees to increase lag time.
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Multi-purpose project
A large-scale venture with ore than one aim.
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Straightening Meander
These occur when the natural curve in a river's course is left as the river follows an artificially more direct course that has been created.
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Floodplain Zoning
Controlling what is built on the floodplain so that areas that are at risk of flooding have low-value land uses.
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Water Stress
This occurs when the amount of water available does not meet that required. This may be due to an inadequate supply at a particular time or it may relate to water quality.
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Areas of Deficit
Locations where the rain that falls does not provide enough water on a permenant basis. Shortages may occur under certain conditions (e.g. Lonbg periods without rain)
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Areas of Surplus
Areas that have more water than is needed - often such areas recieve a high rainfall total, but have a relitativley small population.
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Sustainable
Ensuring that the provision of water is long term and that supplies can be maintained without harming the environment.
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Conservation
The thoughtful use of resources; managing the landscape in order to protect existing ecosystems and cultural features.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Hydraulic Action

Back

The power of the volume of water moving in the river.

Card 3

Front

Abrasion

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Attrition

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Solution

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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