Hard and soft water

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H O I W Q R Y R T N U U B T S I Y P V F F
M M R E Q D B R N F C X M X R K Y H M B X
U A H R H C X R J Q U M B V H B T Y A I F
I G D E C O M P O S E C A R B O N A T E T
D N P T A L X K K F B W T T X Q I U K A S
O E J R S C A L E E F F I C I E N C Y U V
S S U S P V L I H E U V K B R X H V E H R
N I B D Q Y P E R M A N E N T H A R D N L
E U W O I W G E R M G F R V Y V F R O P N
G M I I E A L H Q E G Q U R L O K B J Y O
O A M U M M P H S W W P R E D U C E D C N
R N H J S Q P R E C I P I T A T E X W W E
D D H K M D K Q N M Q A H C Q R T B M W X
Y S L A T H E R E X P E N S I V E L N G L
H O E N M Q D E T M M H B V I C P S C F D
E D O P E N S E E Q A I I E A K F M F J Q
W I I D Y S B J E I N C R E A S E X B G M
B U Q G T T Q F W S T C L O J K L P H E O
I M C I O N E X C H A N G E C O L U M N F
K G K A N H M T K C M T J M K C T T D I N
J W Y E E C C B C T F K Y S U N H Y E N B

Clues

  • __ hard water remains __ upon boiling? (9, 4)
  • Commercial water softener a contain an __? (3, 8, 6)
  • Hard water can __ strength of bones and teeth? (8)
  • Hard water can lead to __ risk of heart disease? (7)
  • Hard water contains __ and __ ions? (9, 3, 6)
  • Hard water does not form a __ with soap easily so more soap is required which is __? (6, 9)
  • Hydrogencarbonate ions __ upon heating to product __ ions? (9, 9)
  • Temporary hard water builds up __ inside kettles and heating systems which reduces their __? (5, 10)
  • The column supplies __ or __ ions? (8, 6)
  • These carbonate ions react with magnesium/calcium ions to form a __? (11)

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