Water on the Land

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  • Created by: Liam1909
  • Created on: 21-05-16 16:56
How is a course of a river cut up into?
By upper, middle and lower course
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What are the features in the upper course of a river?
Steep-sided V-shaped valleys, interlocking spurs, rapids, waterfalls and gorges, steep gradient, vertical erosion
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What are the features in the middle course?
Wide, shallow valleys, meanders, ox-bow lakes, pebbles and small gravel as the load
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What are the features in the lower course?
wide-flat bottomed valleys, floodplains, deltas, levées, wide meanders, the mouth of the river
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What are the four types of transportation called?
Traction (large boulders rolled along sea bed), Saltation (small pebbles bounded along sea bed), Suspension sediment carried by water), Solution (minerals dissolved into the water)
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How are meanders formed?
Lateral erosion causes large bends to occur, and on the outside where the speed of the river is at it's highest, erosion occurs most here due to the decrease of friction. On the inside where the energy levels are low, deposition occurs
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How do ox-bow lakes form?
Usually when rivers flood, lateral erosion forces different meanders to get nearer to one another and once flooded, the path changes to the quickest, leading to deposition occurring on the part that's no longer used, cutting it off
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What are the three types of hard engineering methods?
Dams and reservoirs, river straightening (straightening the meanders), and building artificial levées
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What are the four types of soft engineering methods?
Flood warnings, preparation, floodplain zoning (building buildings further away from rivers) and afforestation (planting more trees to increase rate of infiltration and interception)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the features in the upper course of a river?

Back

Steep-sided V-shaped valleys, interlocking spurs, rapids, waterfalls and gorges, steep gradient, vertical erosion

Card 3

Front

What are the features in the middle course?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the features in the lower course?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the four types of transportation called?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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