# Water on Land

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What does a river's long profile show?
It shows you how the gradient changes over the different courses
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Describe the cross profile of a river's lower course
Gentle gradient with a very wide, almost flat valley. The channel is also very wide and deep
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Name the river course where vertical erosion is dominant
The upper course
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What is the difference between abrasion and attrition?
Abrasion is when eroded rocks picked up by the river scrape and rub against the channel, wearing it away. On the other hand, attrition is when eroded rocks picked up by the river smash into each other and break into smaller pieces.
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Name the four processes of transportation
Traction, saltation, suspension and solution
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When does deposition occur?
It occurs when a river loses velocity and drops the material it's transporting
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Where is the current fastest on a meander?
On the outside of the bend (the channel is deeper there, so there's less friction to slow the water down)
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Name the landform created when a meander is cut off by deposition
An ox-bow lake
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Where do waterfalls form?
They are formed where a river flows over an area of hard rock followed by an area of soft rock
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What is a flood plain?
It is the wide valley floor on either side of a river which occasionally gets flooded
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Describe how levees are formed
During a flood, the heaviest material is deposited closer to the river channel, because it gets dropped first when the river slows down. Over time, this builds up, creating levees
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What do contour lines on a map show?
They show the gradient of the land, and also the direction that a river flows
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Give two pieces of evidence that can be found on a map for a waterfall
Black, blocky lines indicate a cliff, and close contour lines are both evidence for a waterfall
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Give two pieces of map evidence for a river's lower course
The river had large meanders, and the river only crosses one or two contour lines (so it's very gently sloping)
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What is river discharge?
It is the volume of water that flows in the river per second
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How does impermeable rock affect river discharge?
Water can't infiltrate into impermeable rock - this means that there's a lot of runoff. Lag time is also decreased, so river discharge increases
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Which four physical factors can cause a flood?
Prolonged rainfall, heavy rain (JASON!), snowmelt, and relief
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Describe one human factor that can cause a flood
Deforestation. Trees intercept rainwater of their leaves, which evaporates. Trees also take up water through their roots. Therefore, deforestation increases the volume of water that reaches the channel, which increases river discharge
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Name a flood that happened in a rich part of the world
Carlisle, England - 8th January 2005
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Describe the primary effects of this flood
There were 3 deaths, and around 3000 were made homeless. 4 schools were also severely flooded, and some roads and bridges were damaged. Finally, rivers were polluted with rubbish and sewage
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Describe the long-term responses of this flood
Emotional support was provided to give practical help to people who were affected by the floods. Also flood defences (such as built-up river banks) have been improved by a flood defence scheme
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Give an example of a flood in a poor part of the world
South Asia (Bangladesh and India) - July and August 2007
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Define hard engineering
Man-made structures built to control the flow of rivers and reduce flooding
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Define soft engineering
Schemes set up using knowledge of a river and its processes to reduce the effects of flooding
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Describe how channel straightening reduces the risk of a flood
This is because the water moves out of the area more quickly, as it doesn't travel as far
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Describe the disadvantages of flood warnings
Warnings don't stop a flood from happening. Also, living in a place that gets lots of warnings could make it difficult to get insurance. Finally, people may not hear or have access to these warnings
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Which areas in the UK have a water deficit?
The south east and midlands
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Give one potential problem of water transfer
The dams and aqueducts that are needed are expensive
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Name a reservoir in the UK
Rutland Water in the East Midlands
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Describe two social impacts that the reservoir has had
1. Schools use the reservoir for educational visits 2. Two villages had to be demolished to make room for the reservoir
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Describe two environmental impacts that the reservoir has had
1. A variety of habitats are found around the reservoir (lots of different organisms) 2. A large area of land was flooded to make room for the reservoir, which destroyed some habitats
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What is meant by a sustainable water supply?
This means that the amount of water needed for people today will be met, without compromising the amount of water for the future
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How can water be taken from a reservoir in a sustainable way?
People can only take out as much water as can be replaced by the rivers that supply it
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

Describe the cross profile of a river's lower course

#### Back

Gentle gradient with a very wide, almost flat valley. The channel is also very wide and deep

### Card 3

#### Front

Name the river course where vertical erosion is dominant

### Card 4

#### Front

What is the difference between abrasion and attrition?

### Card 5

#### Front

Name the four processes of transportation