Chemistry

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  • Created by: ALV31415
  • Created on: 17-11-15 16:49
Water Cycle
The continuous process by which water is circulated throughout the earth and the atmosphere through evaporation, condensation (of water particles into clouds), precipitation (rain, snow or hail), and the transpiration of plants and animals.
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Nitrogen Cycle
Nitrogen falls down to Earth in the form of nitric acid (nitrogen and oxygen in air react with high temperature of lightning). IN the soil it creates nitrates. Plants then get these nitrates from the soil. Animals get nitrogen by eating plants.
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Nitrogen Cycle 2
When the animals and plants decay, they return to the soil. Some bacteria living in roots can fix nitrogen (NITROGEN FIXATION) from the atmosphere. Chemical industry also extracs nitrogen from the atmosphere for fertilisers (HARBER PROCESS)
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How does lightning fix nitrogen in soil?
Lightning applies enough energy to fuse nitrogen and oxygen in the air to create NOx, which then fall t the ground alongside rainwater
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Carbon Cycle
The combined processes, including photosynthesis, decomposition, and respiration, by which carbon as a component of various compounds cycles between its major reservoirs—the atmosphere, oceans, and living organisms.
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How does the Sun keep the carbon cycle working?
Becuase the sun is necessary for the process of photosynthesis. This process uses CO2 and H2O to create energy. This will, of course, remove carbon dioxide from teh atmosphere.
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Gases in Our Air
78% Nitrogen--21% Oxygen--0,9% Argon--0,1% Carbon Dioxide (0,04%), Water Vapour, Noble Gases (like Neon)
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Green House Gases
Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapour, Methane, Nitrous Oxides
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What are greenhouse gases and what effect do they have on global warming?
Greenhouse gases are those gases that get trapped in the atmosphere, creating a "blanket" that lets IR radiation and heat pass, but it won´t let it get out. This creates a GREENHOUSE EFFECT, which produce a gradual increase in Earth´s temperature.
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Fossil Fuels
Fuels that are the product of dead animals under very high pressure and temperature, and that have been this way after lots of geological time. They are finite resources (unrenewable sources of energy), as their formation takes millions of years.
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What are some examples of fossil fuels?
Coal, Natural Gas and Petroleum
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What is pollution?
The release of gases that can cause environmental problems, like global warming. The burning of fossil fuels is the main source pollution.
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Examples of Pollutants: SO2
Sulphur Dioxide (sulfur can be found in coal; when coal is combusted, the sulfur mixes with oxygen). To stop it, burn low sulfur fuels or burn none.
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Examples of Pollutants: NOx
Nitrogen Oxides (when fuel in cars burn, the heat reacts with nitrogen in the air creating NITROGEN DIOXIDE AND NITROGEN MONOXIDE). To stop it, use catalytic convertors or drive less.
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Effects of NOx and SO2
These gases dissolve in rainwater, creating acid rain. This can: wear away limestone structures; acidify lakes; kill fish and plants.
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Why do NOx and SO2 kill animals and plants
Metal ions like AL +3 are leached. These can get into the gills of fish. Plants: nutrients from soil are leached; aluminium ions create aluminium sulfate, that damages tree roots (water can´t be extracted)
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Examples of Pollutants: CO2
CO2 is created in the burning of fossil fuels/hydrocarbons and in respiration. The fuels are burnt for power stations, cars and heating. Too much CO2 in the atmosphere causes global warming. Stop it by burning less fuels
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Examples of Pollutants: CO
CO is created when hydrocarbons/fossil fuels burn without enough oxygen. CO is poisonous (less oxygen in blood stream). To stop it, use catalytic convertors and less fossil fuels.
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Examples of Pollutants: Particulates
PARTICULATES are created when hydrocarbon/fuels burn without enough oxygen. They are solid carbon particles or soot. They dirty buildings. To stop it, use catalytic convertors and less fossil fuels.
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What are the 4 ways to kill pathogens (bacteria and viruses) in water?
BOILING (most effective); FILTERING (removes bacteria, keeps viruses); CHEMICAL TREATMENT (leaves taste-kills pathogens); UV RADIATION (cand destroy pathogens)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Nitrogen falls down to Earth in the form of nitric acid (nitrogen and oxygen in air react with high temperature of lightning). IN the soil it creates nitrates. Plants then get these nitrates from the soil. Animals get nitrogen by eating plants.

Back

Nitrogen Cycle

Card 3

Front

When the animals and plants decay, they return to the soil. Some bacteria living in roots can fix nitrogen (NITROGEN FIXATION) from the atmosphere. Chemical industry also extracs nitrogen from the atmosphere for fertilisers (HARBER PROCESS)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Lightning applies enough energy to fuse nitrogen and oxygen in the air to create NOx, which then fall t the ground alongside rainwater

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The combined processes, including photosynthesis, decomposition, and respiration, by which carbon as a component of various compounds cycles between its major reservoirs—the atmosphere, oceans, and living organisms.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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