Water conflicts

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What is Blue water?
The visible part of the system, namely water running on the surface and supply rivers or travelling underground, recharging aquifers
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What are the factors which are causing the demand for water to rise?
Population growth, economic development, rising standards of living
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What is Green water?
The interception or transpiration of water by vegetation or its evaporation from a variety of sources
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What does the terms does hydro-logical cycle make use of and to explain what?
Input, output , stores and flows , to explain how water moves through the environment
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What are the 3 main physical factors that link to the supply of water?
Climate, river systems and geology
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What does permeable rock allow water to do?
To pass through into underground drainage systems
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The distribution of water is linked to what?
The Earth's climatic zones
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Which regions receive high levels of precipitation?
Those near the equator
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Give an example of an equatorial area that has 2 distinct periods of wet weather per year
Amazon lowlands
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Give an example of an equatorial area that has 1 distinct period of wet weather per year
Monsoon lands of southeast Asia
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What is an aquifer?
Underground porous rock layers which store underground water. This is extracted using boreholes and wells
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What percentage of the water on Earth is potentially suitable as fresh water?
2.5%
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What percentage of this is easily accessible?
1%
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What percentage of the 2.5%, is trapped in snow ice and permafrost?
79%
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What percentage of easy access water is stored in Lakes?
52%
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What is a river regime?
The variation in annual discharge, closely related to climate and seasonality
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Finish this sentence, 'Down stream river flows generally...'
Increases as tributaries feed into the main river
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Name 2 water rich countries
Canada or Brazil
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Name 2 water poor countries/areas
The middle east or Africa
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How many people globally are chronically short of water?
1/2 a billion
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How many people are currently short of water and what is the expected increase to?
More than 1/3 at present. In the future 45% of the worlds popualtion
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What is the current greatest user of water?
Agriculture using 69% of the worlds fresh water supply
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Global domestic demand for water is what every year?
Doubling
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Finish this sentence, ' A kilogram of beef is ....'
10x's more costly than a kilogram of rice
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What is water stress?
When the annual supply of water per person falls below 1,700 m3
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What is water scarcity?
When the annual supply of water per person falls below 1,000m3 per person
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What are the 2 types of water scarcity?
Physical and economic
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Name a country that is in physical water scarcity
Mexico
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Name a country that is in economic water scarcity
Kenya
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How many mega dams are found in China, USA , Japan and India?
1/2 (50,000)
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What is salt water incursion?
The pollution of coastal groundwater by in flowing seawater. it happens as a result of over abstraction
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Where has salt water incursion occurred?
California
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What is water insecurity?
Not having access to sufficient, safe wtaer
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The problems of water insecurity are linked to what 3 things?
Availability, Access and Usage
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How many people live without clean , safe water ?
1.2 billion, many within 20 developing countries that are classified as water scarce
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Name 2 countries that are contrasting water extremes
Canada and Ethiopia
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How many liters per day does a typical Canadian use?
800 Liters per day
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How many liters per day does a typical Ethiopian use?
1 Liter
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What is the WPI?
The water poverty index.
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What are the 5 parameters of the WPI?
Resources, access, capacity, use and environment
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Complte the sentance, 'The Aral sea was once the world's...'
4th largest in land sea
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It has been steadily shrinking since
the 1960's
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What percentage had the Aral sea declined to by 2007?
to just 10% of its orginal size
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By how many meters has the Aral sea fallen by?
40m
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How many people were employed in fishing in the Aral region?
60,000
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Which 2 countries does the Aral boarder?
Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan
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Name an area that is currently experiencing water conflicts
The middle East
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How many liters does a Palestinian have and how many does an Israeli have?
P= 37 L and I= 242 L
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When was the Arab -Israeli war?
1967
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Syria wants the 1967 boarders reinstating, this will allocated what percentage of Israels water supply back to Syria?
25%
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Which river does Syria plan on developing with a dam?
The Yarmouk
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The basin of the Colorado river is the mostly heavily used source of what in the USA?
Irrigation
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The water rights of each state were allocated in the what of 1922?
Colorado compact
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The water is shared by how many parties?
7 US states and Mexico
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It serves the water needs of how many people?
30 million
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Which state was allocated the largest share of the water, in the 1922 compact?
California
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When the agreements were drawn, the water level was not a true reflection, why was this?
It was a period of water surplus and higher rainfall
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What percentage of the water allocation do farmers receive?
80%
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What percentage of the water is extracted by the time it reaches Mexico?
90%
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Give an example of a water transfer scheme
Any from - China's South-North, The Snowy-mountains scheme, Turkey- Isreal
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What are the Helsinki rules?
An international guideline regulating how rivers and connected groundwater that are cross national boarders are used
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What are the 3 alternative futures?
Business as usual, Water crisis, Sustainable water
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Which out of the 3 is the most worrying?
Water crisis
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What are the 3 main responses to rising demands?
Hard engineering projects to increase water storage & transfer, Restoration of lost supplies , water conservation
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How many years is the South-North water transfer by China expected to take to build?
50 years
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Which part of China has water and which has not?
South= has , North= has not
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Which 4 rivers will the S-N project link up?
The Haui, The Han, The yellow and The Yangtze
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What is desalination?
The removal of excess salt and other minerals from water
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Where is desalination used?
The middle East (UAE, Saudi Arabia), The USA (California)
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What is the cost in (US cents) of the desalination of sea water per m3?
95 cents
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What is the global water gap?
The difference between the static/diminishing water supply and the rising demand
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What is water surplus?
When there is more water available than the needed amount.
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What is over-abstraction?
The extraction and consumption of surface and ground water resources beyond their sustainable level, so the source gradually becomes depleted
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What are water pressure points?
Locations with the potential for conflict
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What is equitable use?
The concept that all countries involved in water sharing situations should recognise ans observe. It means ensuring that all interested parties have a fair share of sources
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What are the Berlin rules (2004)
A revision of the Helsinki rules
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What is a water pathway?
Pipelines and canals that transfer water, often from areas of surplus to deficit
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What is hard engineering?
Controlled disruption of natural processes using man-made structures. Ie dams 2/3 of all surface water is collected from dams
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What is integrated water management?
A process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related sources in order to maximise economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of ecosystems
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What are the 7 obstacles to achieving a secure water supply?
1. Inadequate supply 2. seasonality 3. Lack of infrastructure 4.Competition 5. Environmental impacts 6. Mismatch between supply and demand 7. H20 pollution
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What are the 3 scenarios which are likely to lead to water conflicts?
1. when 2 countries share the same river (Ganges India and Bangladesh) 2. where there are competing and incompatible demands (Aral) 3. where there is a confrontation between development and the need for the conservation of the envrionment
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What are the 5 equitable use criteria?
1. the amount available 2. the degree of dependency 3. the scale needed 4. the downstream impacts 5. Prior use
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What are the 4 factors that will determine the avoidance of future conflicts?
1. The rate of global demand increase 2. the degree to which the demands can be meet with supplies 3. the development of management strategies 4. the development of new technologies
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Who are the main players responsible for ensuring that the rising demands are met?
Governments , international organisations, environmentalists, consumers and water companies
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Explain why the widening water availability gap reflects the widening development gap
Captial and technology are need to provide suffient waterof good quality. Rapidly growing populations create huge demands . Poor people are less able to cope with climate change
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Explain why south and east Asia have been identified as areas of increasing water stress
The onset of climate change, deterioration of ecosystems, population increase and the rapid economic development, all mean that this area will experience increasing stress
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Explain why in general developing countries have less favourable WPI's
Many are in areas of economic or physical water scarcity, with poor access to improved water supplies and a low capacity to improve them
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Explain why groundwater conflicts tend to be more difficult to resolve than disputes over surface water
Use of supplies is hard to monitor, the supplies are poorly mapped, providing equitable shares between users in complex, no legal framework has yet been developed by the UN, many are over-abstracted and diminishing rapidly
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Explain what is meant by eutrophication
Results from farmers over-dosing fields with nitrogen/phosphates, leading to excess fertiliser running into water courses, polluting water supplies and disrupting aquatic ecosystems
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What is the difference between intermediate and high technology?
High =large scale and high cost ie mega dams intermediate = technology that is cheap to install, run and use ie rain water harvesting
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What is the difference between integrated and sustainable water management ?
Integrated= water sources treated holistically the basin is managed by the community. Sustainable includes all aspects of polices that conserve water for future generations in a way that does not damage the environment
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Give 2 examples of areas where climate change will lead to future water stree
The middle east and South Africa
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Card 2

Front

What are the factors which are causing the demand for water to rise?

Back

Population growth, economic development, rising standards of living

Card 3

Front

What is Green water?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does the terms does hydro-logical cycle make use of and to explain what?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the 3 main physical factors that link to the supply of water?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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