War and Terrorism

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Why was the Cold War a period of ideological conflict?
The USA advocated capitalism, democracy, and free markets, whilst the USSR advocated a communist political and economic system.
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Give an example of different type of conflict that took place during the Cold War but was presented in ideological terms.
The Arab-Israeli conflict was associated with the Cold War as the US backed the Israelis and the USSR backed the Arabs.
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Why do some argue that ideological conflict is still relevant today, despite the fact that the Cold War has ended?
Renewed rivalry between Russia and the West, as well as China and the USA.
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What are the three types of 'new' conflict?
Identity politics. Ethnic conflict. Religious conflict.
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What is conflict related to identity politics?
Many new conflicts are civil wars or terrorist campaigns associated with the struggle of social minorities on the basis of religion, gender, ethnic origin, sexuality or other.
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What is ethnic conflict and when did it emerge as a 'new' form of conflict?
Often civil wars associated with efforts by ethnic minorities to break away from their own state or join another state/forcing others to do so. Rose after collapse of USSR, and previously suppressed ethnic tensions were allowed to surface.
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Give an example(s) of ethnic conflict.
Croatia, Bosnia and Kosovo in 1990s or the Rwandan genocide.
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What is the most prominent form of religious conflict in present times?
Violent forms of Islamism attacking the West and Western interests.
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Give an example of a conflict where it has been difficult to assess whether or not it was fought on religious terms.
Former Yugoslavia - Orthodox Serbs fought Muslim Bosniaks and Catholic Croats.
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What does Islamism call for?
A return to the practices of the early Islamic period and the establishment of an Islamic caliphate.
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How do Islamists follow Islam?
As a religious doctrine and political ideology.
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Why has globalisation concerned Islamists?
It has spread incompatible Western ideas and practices into the Muslim world.
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When and where was the first Islamic state set up, and how did this happen?
Iran, 1979; the pro-Western Shah was overthrown by Ayatollah Khomeini's revolution.
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How do Islamists see violence (to achieve religious ends)?
As necessary; a religious obligation.
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Who came up with the 'clash of civilisations' theory, and when was it published?
Samuel Huntington, 1993.
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What is the 'clash of civilisations' theory?
That in the post-Cold War world, conflict is not ideological or economic, but rather cultural in character.
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Give three arguments that the 'clash of civilisations' theory is valid.
Globalisation has eroded importance of ideology and national identity - people identify on basis of religion, customs etc. Conflict between cultures inevitable - incompatible values. Certain trends indicate rise of cultural tensions.
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What are the trends that indicate the rise in cultural tensions?
Fading of US hegemony, economic rise of Asia and the resurgence of Islam.
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Give three arguments that the 'clash of civilisations' theory is an exaggeration.
Portrays civilisations as rigid and sealed ('tectonic' view), whereas in fact they are internally fragmented. Evidence that cultural harmony is possible-conflicts actually originate from social/political factors. Cultural homogenisation ignored.
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Who theorised that a 'new' type of warfare had emerged, and when?
Mary Kaldor, 2006
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Give five characteristics of 'new' wars.
Focus on issues of identity and political power. Reduced distinction between military and civilians due to insurgency. Usually civil wards. Asymmetrical - often state against people. More barbaric with rise of WMD and RMA.
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Give five characteristics of 'old' wars.
Focus on territory. Clear distinction between military and civilians. Fought between states. Competing parties on a similar scale. Fought with conventional military force.
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What is the Revolution in Military Affairs?
The development of new military strategies, particularly in the USA since the 1990s. Focus on 'high tech' and 'smart' weapons.
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What are precision guided munitions?
Weapons designed to hit specific target. Can be radio controlled, laser controlled or satellite guided.
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What are cruise missiles?
Designed to deliver a large warhead over long distances with high accuracy - can travel at supersonic speed.
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What are predator drones?
Unmanned air vehicle, remote controlled, can be used to fire weapons.
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What is cyberwarfare? Give an example.
Stealing of information/hacking etc. Example is the North Korea hacking of Sony - this made unreleased films available on Internet.
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What do chemical weapons release? Give examples.
Chemicals that can disable or kill people. Nerve gas is lethal; tear gas is irritating.
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Who is vulnerable in a chemical weapons attack?
Military can wear protective masks and clothing but are less efficient. Civilians less likely to have protective equipment.
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Why are chemical and biological weapons plants hard to hide?
Look very similar to pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities.
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What was the international agreement that banned chemical weapons possession and production? Which three countries refused to sign?
1992 Chemical Weapons Convention. North Korea, Egypt and Syria refused to sign.
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What do biological weapons release? Give examples.
Deadly/dangerous toxins and microorganisms. Some use deadly diseases like smallpox and anthrax. Other only kill livestock or cause non-fatal human disease.
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What was the international agreement that banned biological weapons production and possession?
1972 Biological Weapons Convention
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How do nuclear weapons damage and destroy targets? Give 3 ways.
Blast, heat and radiation.
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How are nuclear weapons usually delivered?
Ballistic missiles.
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What was the international agreement that banned countries from attempting to acquire nuclear weapons? What did nuclear powers have to do as part of the agreement?
1968 Non-Proliferation Treaty. Nuclear powers had to scale back nuclear arsenals and share nuclear technology for peaceful purposes.
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Which two countries initially refused to sign? Why? When did they eventually sign?
France and China felt it was a way to freeze the balance of power. Signed in 1991.
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Which three countries refused to sign altogether?
Israel, India and Pakistan
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When was the NPT extended?
1995
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What was introduced in 1996 in relation to nuclear proliferation and who signed it?
The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. All 5 nuclear powers at the time signed, as well as around 60 other states.
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Who continued to carry out nuclear tests despite the 1996 CTBT?
India, Pakistan and North Korea (not part of NPT).
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Give three arguments that Iran could be a nuclear threat.
It won't allow the International Atomic Energy Agency inside nuclear facilities for inspection. Possessed enough uranium to produce 7 nuclear weapons. Heated rivalry with Israel.
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Give two arguments that Iran is not a nuclear threat.
No means to launch or deliver nuclear warhead. Have denied nuclear development.
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Give three arguments that North Korea could be a nuclear threat.
Possesses enough material to make 6 weapons. Completed nuclear tests in 2006, 2009 and 2013. Has reportedly 'miniaturised' a device to fit on a missile.
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Give two arguments that North Korea is not a nuclear threat.
'Gave up' nuclear ambitions in 2013 in return for food aid. Lacks scientific expertise and economic ability.
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Give three arguments that nuclear weapons promote peace and stability.
The absence of nuclear war proves they are effective deterrents; only used in 1945 to encourage surrender of Japan and end of WWII. Vertical proliferation has stabilised world order. Nuclear statesmanship; possession encourages caution/responsibility.
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Give three arguments that nuclear weapons do not promote peace and stability.
Fallibility of deterrent systems; miscalculations possible, espec in heated enviro of conventional conflict. Danger of nuclear imbalance; disproportionate power granted Dangers of more unstable system-irresponsible powers, terrorists could use nukes
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What three things can terrorism be defined by?
The act itself - indiscriminate violence. Its victims - innocent civilians. Its perpetrators - non-state bodies intent on influencing actions of IGOs or governments.
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What is state terrorism?
Terrorism carried out by government bodies such as the police, military or intelligence agencies.
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What are the four main types of terrorist groups?
Left wing revolutionaries/insurrectionaries, nationalist/national liberation groups, groups seeking religious/political aims and loner/single issue terrorism.
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Give an example of a left wing revolutionary group, its methods and its aims.
The Italian Red Brigade sought to create a 'revolutionary state' through armed struggle, using methods such as assassination, kidnapping and robbery.
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Give an example of a national liberation group, its methods and its aims.
Tamil Tigers wanted to establish an independent state in the north and east of Sri Lanka for the Tamil people. Used suicide bombings amongst other tactics.
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Give an example of a group seeking religious/political aims, and methods used.
Al Qaeda and ISIS seek to establish an Islamic caliphate wherein Islam is followed as both a religious doctrine and political ideology. Methods include suicide attacks and kidappings.
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Give an example of loner terrorism, its methods and its aims.
Anders Breivik killed 8 people in Oslo governments buildings using a van bomb, before shooting dead 69 students at a Workers' Youth League summer camp. Was promoting his far-right manifesto advocating Islamophobia.
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Give three arguments that world terrorism presents a serious threat to global security.
Devastating tactics - present a danger to those not under threat of conventional warfare; e.g. 9/11 attack on USA. Globalisation has facilitated global spread of messages; e.g. ISIS is Al Qaeda offshoot. Western response further provoked Muslim world
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Give three arguments that world terrorism does not present a serious threat to global security.
Terrorist groups weaker than states militarily; e.g. Syrian conflict. West has improved security, containing terrorism and weakening Al Qaeda; e.g. PATRIOT act, Blair anti-terror. Politicians exaggerate threat to justify controversial policies.
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What are the three ways in which the 'war on terror' has been fought?
The Bush Doctrine (policy stating US ha right to secure itself against any state helping or harbouring terrorists). Security - PATRIOT Act and Blair's anti-terrorism legislation, as well as Guantanamo Bay. Invasion of Iraq and Afghanistan.
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Give three arguments that the 'war on terror' has been a success.
Increase in cooperate efforts between Western allies; e.g. new role of NATO. Threat from Al Qaeda crippled due to execution of senior commanders; ISIS commander killed on 16th May 2015. Islamic states such as Saudi Arabia remained anti-terrorism.
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Who was the ISIS senior commander killed on the 16th May 2015?
Abu Sayyaf
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Give three arguments that the 'war on terror' has been a failure.
Bin Laden's ideology has become a global 'franchise'; Muslims radicalised against West. Invasions of Iraq and Afghanistan failed to establish order; rise in insurgency, ISIS in N Iraq. US aggression further alienated Muslim world; Bush, Obama.
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Card 2

Front

Give an example of different type of conflict that took place during the Cold War but was presented in ideological terms.

Back

The Arab-Israeli conflict was associated with the Cold War as the US backed the Israelis and the USSR backed the Arabs.

Card 3

Front

Why do some argue that ideological conflict is still relevant today, despite the fact that the Cold War has ended?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the three types of 'new' conflict?

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Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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What is conflict related to identity politics?

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