War (Ethics)

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  • Created by: T Colby
  • Created on: 25-01-16 19:44
What are the two main parts of the Just War Theory?
Jus in bello and Jus post bellum.
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What is Jus in bello?
Justice in conduct of the war.
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What is Jus post bellum?
Justice after war.
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What factors are considered by Jus in bello?
Proportionality, discrimination and non-combatant immunity, obey all international laws on weapons, fair treatment of prisoners of war (POWs), no means mala in se and no reprisals.
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Define proportionality.
Using too much force to win is morally wrong.
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What is an example of proportionality?
Some argue the dropping of two nuclear bombs on Japan at the end of WW2 was disproportionate.
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Define discrimination and non-combatant immunity.
People should choose what should and shouldn't be destroyed in war. This is perhaps between civilians and those waging war.
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What is an example of discrimination and non-combatant immunity?
During WW2 the USAAF wanted to bomb German strategic positions whereas the RAF wanted to bomb civilians locations as well. The latter was carried out.
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Define obey all international laws on weapons.
Some weapons have tried to be internationally bannded.
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What is an example of obey all international laws on weapons?
Mustard gas and napalm are internationally banned in warfare and totally.
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Define fair treatment of prisoners.
Treating POWs fairly.
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What is an example of fair treatment of prisoners?
Some Russian POWs weren't treated fairly under Nazi captivity in WW2.
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Define no means mala in se.
Soldiers are not allowed to use war methods that are evil. For instance ****, genocide, ethnic cleansing, forcing people to fight their own and biological weapons.
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What is an example of no means mala in se?
The Holocaust is an example of ethnic cleansing of the Jewish population in Europe in WW2 by the Nazis.
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What does no means mala in se translate to?
Wrong or evil in itself.
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Define no reprisals.
Trying to make a defeated nation follow rules which escalates violence.
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What is an example of no reprisals?
Germany was divided up by its victors in WW2 which escalated violence and disorder.
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What are the factors considered by Jus post bellum?
Proportionality, discrimination, rights vindication, punishment, compensation and rehabilitation.
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Define proportionality in term sof Jus post bellum.
Should be fair and not with the intention of humiliating the defeated side. Should not cause future problems.
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Define discrimination.
Between leaders, soldiers and civilians. Civilian interests should be protected after the war so financial punishments should not be imposed.
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Define rights vindication.
Human rights are removed from victims. War should end with the securing of rights.
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Define punishment.
Punishment of war losers is unjust. Leaders should face trial under international war tribunals.
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Define compensation.
Financial support may be neccessary for a country devastated by war. This needs to be considered in relation to other aspects because it should not be a case of inflicting a punishment but ensuring the raveged country can recover.
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Define rebailitation.
A country should change for the better after the war.
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What are the three types of pacifism?
Religious (RP), Contingent (CP) and Preferential (PP).
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(RP) Jesus called people to what and not to what?
Sacrifical love and not violence.
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(RP) We should love whome and do good to whome?
Love our enemies and do good to those who hate us.
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Is RP the majority or minority view in the Christian Church?
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What is the most familiar RP group within the UK?
Quakers (conscientious objectors).
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What is a conscientious objector?
Someone who refusus to fight but supports a cause.
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What is an example of a conscientious objector?
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Name a famous RP pacifist.
Martin Luther King Jr.
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Name a famous Polish RP pacifist.
Lech Watesa.
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What famous Catholic monk was an RP pacifist?
Thomas Merton.
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Who criticised Augustine's support of violence to defend the innocent?
Mainstream Protestant Walter Wink.
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(CP) is not opposed to war on what grounds?
Absolute grounds.
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(CP) opposed to war on what grounds?
Contingent grounds.
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(CP) all wars involve the killing of whome which is morally what?
Innocent which is morally unjustifiable.
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Why does CP support what?
Self-defence and defence of others - the innocent must always be protected.
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What is CP against in principle?
Violence and war.
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War is sometimes what than violence?
The lesser of the two evils.
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(PP) is a preferential option over what?
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(PP) war has been destructive when?
Throughout history.
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What did Pope Paul VI write in Populorum Progressio in 1967?
"To struggle against injustice is to promote the common good. Peace is not just the absence of war".
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What are seen as militating against social and international peace?
Social injustices, inequality and lack of human dignity.
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What is an example of an act that is accepted by PP?
Dietrich Bonhoeffer's plot to kill Nazi Adolf Hitler.
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(PP) what is pacifism about?
How to live life.
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(PP) what is this form the promotion of?
Justice and human rights.
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What are the two forms of realism?
Realism (R) and Christian Realism (CR).
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(R) war is a non what?
Non moral activity.
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(R) tries to assess war's what?
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(R) how does this respond to war?
Responds in terms of its benefits.
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(R) what is an example of a benefit of war?
Sometimes gives a state extra land and/or resources.
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(R) What are examples of actions that are wrong but not for nations?
Killing, maiming and stealing.
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(R) How can nations go to war?
Without considering or being judged by morality.
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(R) How does a nation survive in war?
By looking after its own interests.
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(R) ethics and what are not comparible/do not exist?
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(CR) uses what to restrain evil?
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(CR) people must rise above what in war?
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Card 2


What is Jus in bello?


Justice in conduct of the war.

Card 3


What is Jus post bellum?


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Card 4


What factors are considered by Jus in bello?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Define proportionality.


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