War Communism, 1918-21.

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  • Created by: T Colby
  • Created on: 27-04-16 12:15
What did the existence of the Cheka and Red Army enable Lenin to embark on a policy on?
Centralisation.
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What policy brought all major industrial enterprises in Russia under central government control?
Decree on Nationalisation, June 1918.
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By how much did the populations of Petrograd and Moscow fall between 1918 and 1921.
Fell by half.
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What added to industrial problems?
Hyperinflation which reduced the value of money and purchasing of goods.
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What was sent into the countryside to take grain by force?
Cheka.
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What was the taking of grain by force known as?
Grain requisitioning.
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Who did the Bolshevik government believe was hoarding grain stocks?
Kulaks.
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What was the truth about the peasants and grain?
They did not wish to give their grain away but instead wanted a fair price for it by the government.
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What did Lenin order was to happen to the kulaks?
They were to be "Mercilessly suppressed".
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What did Lenin order in a letter in 1920?
He gave instructions that one hundred kulaks were to be hanged in public in order to terrify the population.
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What had the combination of requisitioning, drought and the general disruption of war created by 1921?
A national famine.
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What had the grain harvets of 1920 and 1921 produced?
Less than half the amount gathered in 1913.
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What did the goverment newspaper Pravda admit in 1921?
That one in five of the population was starving.
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What did the Bolsheviks accept to help prevent famine?
Foriegn aid.
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What nation helped Russia the most?
USA.
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What did the USA set up to aid Russia?
American Relief Association (ARA).
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How many Russians did the ARA provide food for?
10 million.
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How many died in the Civil War?
10 million.
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How many of the fatalities in the Civil War were the result of starvation?
Over half.
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What did Lenin resent?
Accepting aid from the ARA and ordered it to withdraw from Russia in 1923 after two years work there during which time it had spent $60 million in relief work.
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Why did Lenin welcome the famine?
It offered him with an opportunity to destroy the Orthodox Church.
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What did Lenin order the Politburo to exploit in a letter in 1922?
Exploit the famine by shooting priests "The more, the better".
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What three things did War Communism focus on?
Centralising of industry, ending of private ownership and the squeezing of peasants.
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Name a right-wing Bolshevik who supported War Communism.
Nikolai Bukharin.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What policy brought all major industrial enterprises in Russia under central government control?

Back

Decree on Nationalisation, June 1918.

Card 3

Front

By how much did the populations of Petrograd and Moscow fall between 1918 and 1921.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What added to industrial problems?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was sent into the countryside to take grain by force?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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