war and peace

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• Ethics of the state V of the individual
state has a responsibility of all its citizens; individual has the right and chance to take whatever stance they wish
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background of war
constantine became emperor and converted to Christianity, Augustine proposed the JWT, developed Aquinas (partly come out of NML)
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JWT - jus ad bello
started/controlled by authority, cause = just/sufficient, fought to establish good, reasonable chance of success, last resort, sufficient force
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examples of jus ad bello
WW2 - ultimatum to Germany - war as a last resort, ecomics sanction on Russia, ISIL not a legitimate authority
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jus ad bello -how to fight
discriminate = military, proportionality = only 'enough' force, only weapons = no tortue or ****
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jus post bello
'conditions of peace', just cause to end war, right intention, discriminate, proportionality
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example of jus post bello
T of V was a diktat so not adhering to Jus post Bello
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morality of individual do not apply to state, state should protect its self-interest, still morals to war e.g. treatment of prisoners
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christian realism
1960s, Reinhold Niebuhr 'human beings are essentially sinful and concerned with self-interests', war is innevitable, lesser of 2 evils, pacifism is wrong
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absolute pacifism
no war at all
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active pacifism
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selective pacifism
weapons/mass destruction
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contingent/relativism pacifism
only some kinds of war
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preferential pacifism
only some kind
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- “love your neighbour” and “love your enemy” - “protect those who cannot protect themselves”
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biblical teaching yes and no
- “A eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth” but.. “if someone strikes your left cheek, turn to them the other”
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bible - yes
- “Proclaim this among the nations; prepare for war!” - “The Lord is a warrior” - “I have not come to bring peace but a sword”
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bible - no
blessed are the peacemakers
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divine command theory
- 10 Commandments: “Do not kill” but God fights for the Jews in the
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chrisitan forgive
forgive people “seventy times seven”
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pacifist examples
quakers, conscientious objectors
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realism examples
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jesus and paul
spirit of the law, protect those who cannot protect themselves
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NML - no
‘preserve life’ ‘harmonious society’
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euthyphro dilemma
if war is commanded by God, is it good?
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Jesus 'righteous anger'
went into the temple and overturned a table as people were abusing it; can be angry when right e.g. war
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preference utilitarianism
- gov vote if we go to war and have mandate so okay - if conscription or dictator then no - people voted Nazi Germany into power
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act utilitarianism
may be worse to keep people suffering, proportion, soldiers dying lesser of 2 evils, hedonic calculas - dont know calculas, who applies the calculas e.g. government
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rule util
can't access higher pleasures, bring greater happiness, ethics and war do not mix
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NML - yes
aquinas - JWT, needed to protect others and restore harmonious society
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NML - no
against 2 of the primary precepts, use reason, apparent good
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kant - no
soldier for glory is wrong, can't be universalised, using soldiers as a means to end, 'do not kill except in wartime' is hypothetical
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kant yes
soldier's duty
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kant's contradiction
duty of self-preservation and to protect the 'kingdom of ends', preserve autonomy, use CI instead of dictator - no freedom so don't have to follow CI
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Util - yes
priciple of utility - more happiness, changeable position - reassess if too many deaths
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util - no
difficult to apply due to unpredictable outcome
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kant example
• 3rd formulation – acting as though legislating for ‘kingdom of ends’ – 1795 ‘Perpetual Peace’ – federation of free states bound by covenant prohibiting war – ie. International government – key to League of Nations then UN
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According to Fletcher, Legalism’s problem is that it doesn’t allow exceptions: ‘Never kill’ fails to allow killing in self-defence or during war – times when killing may in fact be the most loving thing to do. Absolute Pacifism is a form of Legalism
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


background of war


constantine became emperor and converted to Christianity, Augustine proposed the JWT, developed Aquinas (partly come out of NML)

Card 3


JWT - jus ad bello


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Card 4


examples of jus ad bello


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Card 5


jus ad bello -how to fight


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