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Where does the English word 'incarnation' come from?
Latin word 'incarntionem' which means 'becoming flesh'
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What belief does the incarnation express?
That Jesus Christ was God in human form.
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What was Jesus' life on earth?
Only a short period in the story of one who had always been and will always be.
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Was Jesus' birth at Bethelehem the beginning?
No.
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Was Jesus' death on the cross at Calvary the end?
No.
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While Jesus lived on earth, what did people find themselves in?
The presence of God in the flesh.
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What does John 1:14 say?
'the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, full of grace and truth; we have beheld his glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father'
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What Council's made the most widely accepted definitions of the incarnation and nature of Jesus?
Nicea (325), Ephesus (431) and Chalcedon (451)
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What did the Council of Nicea say?
'one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, begotten of the Father... he was incarnate and was man made'
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What did the Council of Chalcedon say?
'the same perfect in Godhead and also perfect in manhood; truly God and truly man'
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What did the Council's assert about Jesus Christ being fully God?
Begotten from, but not created by the Father.
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What did the Council's assert about Jesus Christ being fully man?
Taking his flesh and human nature from the Virgin Mary.
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What 2 natures were united in the one person of Jesus?
Human and Divine.
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What is this known as?
Hypostatic Union.
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What does the doctrine of incarnation see Jesus as?
Fully human and fully God.
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How is Jesus fully God?
Because he is believed to have existed from the beginning with God and was God
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Where did Jesus go after the resurrection?
Returned to his Father with whom he now reigns forever more.
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How is Jesus fully human?
Because he was a man of flesh and blood, born as any other person is born.
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What human things did Jesus experience?
Hunger, weakness, temptation and disappointment and died.
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Does the doctrine give equal validity to both of Jesus' natures?
Yes
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Who is the theory rejected by?
Jews, Muslims and some Christian denominations e.g. Unitarians.
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Why do they reject it?
On the grounds that it violates the transcendence and immutability of God.
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What were Christian theologians condemned by the church as heretics?
Throughout the ages have attempted to emphasie one nature in Jesus' person at the expense of the other.
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Where does the word 'kenosis' come from?
The Greek word 'keno' which means to make empty.
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What does Paul's letter to the Philippians (2:7) say about Jesus?
'though he was in the form of God, did not regard equality with God as something to be exploited, but emptied himself, taking the form of a slave, being born in human likeness'
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What does kenotic theology attempt to solve?
Difficulties arising from Jesus having both a divine nature and a human nature.
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What are example questions raised?
How could an omniscient God become a baby and how could Jesus if he was God be tempted or not know when the world was to end.
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What concept to many question in which Paul said?
What he meant when he said that Jesus 'emptied' himself.
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Why can it not be that Jesus emptied himself of his divinity and ceased to be God?
Because if he was truly God he must have continued to be God during his earthly ministry, maintaining the substantial presence of God, although his divine attributes were hidden.
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What is substantial presence?
The idea that although unseen, God is fully presence, not symbolically, but in reality or substance.
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Who's Gospel is substantial presence a strong theme in and where does it appear?
Matthew in the beginning, middle and end of Gospel.
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If Jesus is present with his people, how is God present?
Somehow through Jesus.
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How does the angle at beginning reflect this?
'they should call his name Immanuel' which means God with us.
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When do Roman Catholic's believe Jesus is present?
When they celerate mass.
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What is the issue about Jesus' presence?
In what form and in what way is Jesus present.
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What two forms could Jesus' presence be?
Spiritual or substantial.
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What is the doctrine of transubstantiation?
That the bread and wine are literally transformed into Jesus' flesh and blood.
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What was Jesus' preincarnate self-limitation?
Agreeing to 'take the form of a slave, being born in human likeness'
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Whilst fully human what does Jesus maintain?
Substantial presence as fully divine.
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What does Jesus self-empty?
His own will as a human being and submitting entirely to the will of God.
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What is kenotic theory an indication of?
God's will and of Jesus' ethic of sacrifice.
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Where, in Luke's Gospel, is the capture of the humilty and obedience of kenosis found?
Mary's response to the angel.
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Which is a kenotic message which Mary related to?
'he has filled the hungry with good things and the rich he has sent away empty'
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Who needs to be emptied?
The rich who are full of themselves.
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Who needs to be filled?
Those who are empty in their belies and attitudes.
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How are the roles reversed in the same way as Jesus?
Jesus, the divine one, chose to reverse his own role and become the obedient servant.
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What does John 1:14 state?
'The word became flesh and dwelt among us'
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What quote demonstrates the doctrine of kenosis?
'Father, if you are willing, take this cup from me; yet not my will, but yours be done'
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How does Matthew show the incarnation?
Jesus is present with his people, God is present in Jesus ('God saves') and Immanuel = 'God with us'.
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How does Luke show the incarnation?
Mary empties herself of her will and accepts will of God, rich emptied and poor filled, God empties position of God to become obedient servant.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What belief does the incarnation express?

Back

That Jesus Christ was God in human form.

Card 3

Front

What was Jesus' life on earth?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Was Jesus' birth at Bethelehem the beginning?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Was Jesus' death on the cross at Calvary the end?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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