Design Technology Definitions

These are the exact definitions on the WJEC/CBAC specification in AS and A level design technology 

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Aesthetics
the study of the concept of beauty and the look style and appearance of an item
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BSI
British standards institute - a body that sets and checks safety and quality of consumable items
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Technology push
new products can be developed and old products made obsolete by advancements in technology, e.g. smaller, more powerful microprocessors led to the development of computers with improved performance
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Criteria
elements that must be present to fulfill the task
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Annotation
Notes providing a critical explanation of a piece of work
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CAD / CAM
computer aided design / computer aided manufacture
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classification
a system of placing materials into groups - ie. - protein fibres, cellulose fibres, hardwoods etc
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Data
information/ observations/ facts or measurements required for a project
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Aramid Fibres
Man-made synthetic polymer fibre - ie Nomex and Kevlar - generally high performance fibres with high tenacity and high temperature resistance
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CIM
Computer integrated manufacture - all parts of the business are networked
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Coating
a method of adding a polymeric (synthetic) layer onto a material to produce a coated of two of more layers - eg a pvc and cotton table covering, varnish etc
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Scale Models
used to test designs without the expense of making full-sized prototypes; can be used to test ergonomics, construction processes, colour schemes, materials etc.
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Artefact
a man-made object or work of art
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CNC
Computer numerically controlled - allowing control of all arms of the business by assigning numbers to each job so tracing and management can be controlled
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branding
a name given to a commodity to increase it's popularity and market share
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Degradation
the wearing down of the surface of a material usually due to abrasion
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Batch Production
a production line system producing a finite number of items
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Patent
Issued by government authority, these documents grant the sole right to make, use, sell a design, making it both unique and protected
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Conductive Fibres
those that can conduct heat/ light/ electricity - ie; carbon, metallic or glass
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Video Conferencing
a PC desktop system that enables designers to talk and see manufactures, clients, etc, while simultaneously working on CAD drawings or either tasks on the computer. Video conferencing reduces the need for people to travel to meetings across the world
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Biodegradable
will break down/ decompose when subjected to bacteria
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Constraints
the restrictions placed upon the designer / manufacturer
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Swatch
sample showing colour, texture etc - used as a portable source to select from.
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Development
the movement of an idea through a number of stages
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Pigment
the essence of a dye used in colouration that is insoluble in water
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Carbon Fibre
a mineral fibre normally from graphite used for its lightness and strength
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Consumer
the person who purchases the goods - and/ or the user
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EDP
Electronic data processing
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Thumbnail sketches
rough design sketches of an initial design idea
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Cellulose
a plant based fibre - could be natural or regenerated
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Corporate Identity
the company's image. Critical control points. Points at which an item must be checked during manufacture
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EDI
Electronic data interchange
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Economy of scale
Balance of return of profit from cost
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Formula elements
a set method, rules or patterns that have been proven to work if followed correctly
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Orthographic drawings
drawings showing the front, plan, and end views of a design, often including details of materials and dimensions
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Micro Encapsulation
a chemical process used to trap chemicals in the cells of a fibre (ie. smell, moisture)
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Ergonomics
the relationship between the human body and a designed object
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Flow chart
A method of planning using agreed symbols to ensure the critical path of the product is followed
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Industrial practices
processed based activity making cost effective products - encompasses all techniques employed within business processes
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Micro fibre
a synthetically produced fibre that can be 100 times finer than human hair
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Extrusion
a material is pushed or drawn through a die of the desired cross-section
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Function
the end use of an item (to make this successful, functional requirements of the specification must be met
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ICT
information and communication technology - has revolutionised all areas of the production industry from inspiration through design, make, distribution, sales and feedback
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Micro Porous
A fibre with a cellular structure that increases it's absorbency
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Fast
will not fade / run/ bleed when exposed to light/ water/ washing
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geotextiles
a generic name for any technical textile used in building and civil engineering ie; landscaping or road re-enforcement
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Global Manufacturing
Modern-day industrial practice of designing in one part of the world and manufacturing the product in another where materials and labour costs may be cheaper - e.g. UK to China
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moisture management
a system that allows fibres and fabrics to wick moisture away from the skin
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fashion Cycles
the rise and fall from conception through saturation to 'obsoletion' of a product
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Generic
a non-brand name ie elastane (generic) Lycra (brand name) and acrylic (generic) Perspex (brand name)
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Logo
a symbol or visual image linked to a brand name or product - enables marketing and promotes customer loyalty
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Mood board
will set a general feel, colour, mood, and theme rather than give specific inspiration
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CAD models
The production of computer-generated drawings using vector or raster graphics. CAD models can be simple dimensioned drawings or, at the other extreme, animated 3-D simulations
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Mock-ups
rough models, often full-sized, made from low cost materials such as card, pink/blue modelling foam, MDF etc.
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Prototype
usually a high-standard quality model or functioning product that is produced to realise a solution or demonstrate an idea/design
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Overheads
the costs involved in running a business that will have to be covered in the selling price (transparencies us
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Finish
either a chemical or mechanical method of altering the surface or properties of a material after construction
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Risk assessment
a document assessing the type of hazard, the level of risk, who might be affected by the hazard, and the description of control measurements taken to minimise the risk associated with using specific materials, processes, etc.
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Marketing
the development of a scheme to target a product at the consumer (use the five P's)
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Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH)
regulations dealing with the safe handling use and storage of hazardous materials
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Fixed Costs
costs that do not change but must be accounted for in production (ie heating, lighting, electricity)
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Health and Safety Executive (HSE)
A government advisory service that helps companies meet health and safety obligations under the H&S at work act. The HSE publishes safety posters, books and copies of specific H&S regulations. HSE officers visit employees to check they comply to rule
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Obsolescence
products become obsolete as they are superseded by better/newer models. Some a
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Electronic point of sale (EPOS)
The use of bar code readers to send sales data to distributors and manufacturers in order to maintain correct stock levels and read demand
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PPC
Production, planning and control (production department has control over every stage of make)
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Quality Assurance
The method of assuring quality of a product from design through to manufacture
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Demand-pull
Consumer demand can lead to development in products, e.g., demand for more energy-efficient domestic appliances as fuel costs rise and consumers are more aware of green issues.
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testing
a range of tests carried out at any stage of production to ensure the requirements of the end product are met effectively
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Pattern Block
a standard shape and sized pattern used as a base to create new styles
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Quality control
Looks at where faults may arise and sets up controls systems to stop them happening
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design movement
A movement is a style or prevailing inclination in art or design that upholds a specific philosophy or ideal and is followed and promoted by a group of artists for a defined period of time. Abstract Expressionism. Art Deco. Bauhaus. etc.
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trend forecasting
A group of people or company employed to create mood/inspiration, colour, shape, theme, texture, fire, types for forthcoming seasons. Designers buy into these forecasts to create their ranges. Companies are often at the forefront of forecasting.
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Polymer
a large molecule built up from repeated chemical units, the chemical base of synthetic fibres
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QRM
Quick response manufacturing, relies on integrating all parts of the business to respond to needs of the market quickly. EDI, CIM and CAD/CAM play a large part in this
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solution
a mixture of two or more substances in a liquid (dissolved state)
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Tolerance
the degree to which the measurement of a product can vary from the specification
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Product life cycles
the life of a designed outcome traced from conception through maturity into decline and obsolescence
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research
Gathering information to support and develop ideas, gathering, deconstruction, analysis and synthesis
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Specification
Set parameters to adhere to within a brief (design spec, product spec, manufacturing spec)
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Unit cost
The cost price of one unit (could be one item or a group of items)
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Just in Time (JIT)
The organisation of production so that customers get their orders just in time. This means avoiding the carry of stock, materials and components, and storing finished goods
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Just in time sequence
A refinement of JIT, in which parts are not only delivered at the right time and place but also in sequence to match the flow of a product through an assembly line. This totally eliminates the need for storing stock at the side of the production line
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Master production schedule (MPS)
a scheduling system used to organise the work to be completed within a set time period
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Materials requirements planning (MRP)
a software system for work cells to order materials and components for their suppliers, when they require them
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Telematics
a system for tracking a product from customer order through to manufacture and dispatch
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Flexible Manufacturing systems (FMS)
organising production equipment to allow manufacture of a variety of different products, as opposed to dedicated systems that can only make a single type. Such production allows for changes in consumer demand.
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scales of productions
Products are made in a range of quantities, from one-off bespoke piece to a large scale production run, depending on demand. The numbers produced indicates the scale of production for a product (e.g. One-off, Batch, mass, continuous)
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Flexible Manufacturing
refers to organising production into cells of machines performing different tasks. They are typically laid out in a U-shape, rather than a production line, to enable one operative to control several machines
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Rapid Prototyping (RPT)
the use of CNC machines that create 3-D objects using lasers to solidify liquid polymers, known as stereo-lithography
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Lead time
the time a customer must wait to receive a product after placing an order
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Computer-aided engineering
The use of computers to model engineering problems and simulate working conditions to see how they perform
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Computer-integrated manufacture
The use of computers to link together business and manufacturing data and the control of production, in order to make production more efficient
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Primary research
research that is gathered, viewed, touched or tested by the individual
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Resources
Products and information used to build and gather research information
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Story Board
contains themes, designs, materials, samples and possibly components for a range of products
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Virgin Material
Refers to a material that has not previously been used (no recycled parts)
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Production Planning
A method of planning the construction of an item through a factory
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Risk Assessment
An analysis of the dangers involved in the production and use of a product
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System
A set method within a process
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Vacuum Forming
A method of heat setting and shaping involving the removal of air to pull the material tightly over a former
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Profit
the money made from the sales of an item after all costs have been deducted
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Risk Control
Measures set in place to minimise the risks identified in risk assessment
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Tensile Strength
Applies to many materials and is a measurement of the load or force that can be put on the material before it breaks. A spring balance that can be read at the point of breaking normally measures this
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Quick Response Manufacturing (QRM)
the organisation of production to manufacture to customer demand, rather than manufacturing items to stock. Reduces cost on storage
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Prototype
a product made to test a new design so that development and refinement can take place
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Secondary Research
Research that is not viewed first hand, but through books pictures and the internet etc.
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Thermoplastic
a plastic capable of being set in a shape by heat and retaining that shape unless the setting temperature is exceeded
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

British standards institute - a body that sets and checks safety and quality of consumable items

Back

BSI

Card 3

Front

new products can be developed and old products made obsolete by advancements in technology, e.g. smaller, more powerful microprocessors led to the development of computers with improved performance

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

elements that must be present to fulfill the task

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Notes providing a critical explanation of a piece of work

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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