Vulnerability to addiction

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  • Created by: Zoew101
  • Created on: 11-03-16 21:21
Stress
Stress makes addictive activities feel more rewarding providing a greater hedonic response. It releases endogenous opioids to help with coping increasing sensitivity of dopamine reward circuit. Leads to blunted stress response.
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Paris
Recreational and pathological gamblers had corticosteroid stress hormone levels measured in saliva after watching video of preferred mode of gambling. Recreational gambrels = increased salivary stress response.
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Shawa
45 smokers interested in smoking cessation, stress response measured with public speaking task. 4 weeks later, task was repeated. relapse smokers = less endogenous opioids and weaker stress response.
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Peers
People with low self esteem = more vulnerable. DiClemente = people vulnerable: people who don't have close relations with peers, are over-dependent on peers with poor friendship skills, low belief in ability to manage peer relations, fear rejection.
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Taylor
multi-ethnic sample of 900 American boys over 9 years, asked to rate truthfulness of statements. at 20 years, 64% had done drugs, 10% had drug addiction. Negative correlation at age 11 and age 20.
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Kavas
243 Turkish late adolescents between 17-24, completed a self-report questionnaire. Found low self-esteem was negatively correlated with peer pressure, alcohol and illicit drug use but not significant to smoking.
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Age
Late teens/earl 20's vulnerable because time of biological transition, cognitive and life changes. Mid-life more vulnerable because biological transition, life changes, cognitive decline.
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Oslin
Two peaks for vulnerability to alcohol addiction (late teens/early twenties and around 50 years old).
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Bush
250 American smokers showed variation of gene involved with neurotransmitter serotonin started smoking at 15.6 years compared to 17.3 years for smokers with a different gene.
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Personality
Impulsive personality: prone to making reckless decisions, having insufficient serotonin systems makes people vulnerable to addiction. Local of control: alcoholics = external locals of control, gamblers= both external and internal.
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Bush
250 American smokers showed vacation with gene involved in neurotransmitter serotonin started smoking at 15.6 years compared to 17.3 years with different type of gene.
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Lester
65 college students given rotters locus of control scale and asked if gambled in last 15 months. external orientated = more likely to gamble in chance games.
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Media influences- encouraging
social learning theory to promote addiction, viewer attends to attractiveness, produces identification and imitate behaviour in expectation of similar rewards. Classical conditioning when adverts cue addictions.
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Di Rocco
questionnaire showed that cigarette advertisements displaying highly relaxing images were associated with increased intentions to smoke in female adolescents but not males.
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Crockford
10 male pathological gamblers matched healthy control participants gambling cue video alternating with videos of nature scenes. Pathological gamblers = increase in cravings and different brain activities.
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Media influences- discouraging
Government adverts discourage addictions by SLT and vicarious punishment of behaviour. less motivated after viewing adverts and are classically conditioned by fear. Bans on adverts reduce classically conditioned behaviours and reductions in SL.
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Smee
advertising bans in Norway and Finland.Cigarettes consumed reduced to 9% and 7%.Since advertising bans prevalence of smokers aged 13-15 fell from 15% to 9% in 1990. Girls = 17% to 9%.
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Breen
8 anti-binge drinking messages 196 Australina students. vicarious health threats were more believable and effective than social threats, low level threats were more believable than social threats.
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Card 2

Front

Recreational and pathological gamblers had corticosteroid stress hormone levels measured in saliva after watching video of preferred mode of gambling. Recreational gambrels = increased salivary stress response.

Back

Paris

Card 3

Front

45 smokers interested in smoking cessation, stress response measured with public speaking task. 4 weeks later, task was repeated. relapse smokers = less endogenous opioids and weaker stress response.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

People with low self esteem = more vulnerable. DiClemente = people vulnerable: people who don't have close relations with peers, are over-dependent on peers with poor friendship skills, low belief in ability to manage peer relations, fear rejection.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

multi-ethnic sample of 900 American boys over 9 years, asked to rate truthfulness of statements. at 20 years, 64% had done drugs, 10% had drug addiction. Negative correlation at age 11 and age 20.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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