Voluntary and Involuntary Muscles

HideShow resource information
What are the 3 types of muscle?
Skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle
1 of 18
Skeletal muscle
Striated, voluntary, regularly arranged cells that contract in one direction, rapid contraction speed, short contraction length, muscle fibres are tubular and multinucleated
2 of 18
Cardiac Muscle
Heart muscle, specialised striated, involuntary, intermediate contraction speed and length, fainter striations, fibres are branched and uninucleated
3 of 18
Smooth Muscle
Non-striated, involuntary, no regular arrangement, different cells can contract different directions, slow contraction rate and con contract for long periods of time, fibres are spindle shaped and uninucleated
4 of 18
In skeletal muscles, the bundles of muscle fibres are bound by a membrane, what is the membrane called?
Sarcolemma
5 of 18
How come muscle fibres contain more than one nucleus?
During the development of the embryo, the embryonic muscle cells fused together to make the muscles stronger
6 of 18
What is the shared cytoplasm called?
Sarcoplasm
7 of 18
Why does parts of the sarcolemma fold inwards?
These are known as transverse (T) tubules, they help spread the electrical impulses throughout the sarcoplasm to ensure the fibre receives the impulse to contract at the same time
8 of 18
How are muscle fibres adapted for contraction?
Lots of mitochondria to provide the ATP needed and modified endoplasmic reticulum known as sarcoplasmic reticulum stretching throughout fibres and contains lots of Ca ions needed
9 of 18
What are myofibrils?
Long organelles specialised for contraction, they are made up of 2 proteins, actin and myosin
10 of 18
Actin
Thinner filament, 2 strands entwined around each other
11 of 18
Myosin
Thicker filament, has long rod-shaped projections with bulbous heads
12 of 18
Structure of myofibrils
Alternating light and dark bands, giving its striped appearance
13 of 18
Light bands
Isotopic/I bands, where myosin and actin filaments don't overlap
14 of 18
Dark bands
Anisotropic/A bands, where the thick myosin filaments are present and the edges are darker as the myosin is overlapped with actin
15 of 18
Z-line
The line in the centre of each light band
16 of 18
H-zone
the lighter coloured region in the anisotropic bands where only myosin filaments are present
17 of 18
Sarcomere
The region in between 2 Z-lines, the functional unit of the myofibril, when muscle contracts the sarcomere shortens
18 of 18

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Skeletal muscle

Back

Striated, voluntary, regularly arranged cells that contract in one direction, rapid contraction speed, short contraction length, muscle fibres are tubular and multinucleated

Card 3

Front

Cardiac Muscle

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Smooth Muscle

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

In skeletal muscles, the bundles of muscle fibres are bound by a membrane, what is the membrane called?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Neuronal Communication resources »