Vitamins

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  • Created by: Becca
  • Created on: 22-12-13 20:30
Define vitamins
Organic substances needed in small amountsfor normal metabolism but can't be synthesized by the body in sufficient quantities
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Which vitamins are water soluble & which are fat soluble?
Water soluble = vitamin B & C. Fat soluble = vitamin A, D, E & K
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Which factors increase the availability of vitamins?
Pro-vitamins e.g. nictotinic acid & colonic bacteria e.g. vitamin K, B12, folate
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Which factors decrease the availability of vitamins?
Biliary dysfunction (vitamin K), binding (nicotinic acid), colonic bacteria in small intestine (B12, fat-soluble vitamins)
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How long does the body store water soluble vitamins (vit C, B12) & fat soluble vitamins (vit A,D)?
Vitamin C = 3-6 months. Vitamin A,D = 1-2 years. B12 = 1-2 years (liver)
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What are the different types of water soluble vitamins?
3 types: intermediary metabolism (thiamin, nicotinic acid), anaemia preventing (B12, folate) & antioxidants (vitamin C)
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Where is thiamin found? What causes deficiency & consequences?
Found in plant seed (cereals, rice), meat, fish. Deficiency through diet - 'polished' rice, chronic alcoholism. Causes beriberi - polyneuropathy, encephalopathy, enlarged heart
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Where is nicotinic found? What causes deficiency & consequences?
Functional part of NAD found in fish, liver, cereals. Deficiency trough diet - maize, chronic alcoholism, malabsorption. Causes pellagra - underweight, erythema, digestive/neurological disorders
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Where is B12 found? What are the consequences of deficiency?
In animal products, yeast (+ intrinsic factors). Deficiency causes megaloblastic anaemia, neuropathy (impaired synthesis of myelin)
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Where is folate found? What are the consequences of deficiency?
In green vegetables. Deficiency causes anaemia, increased risk of neural tube defects
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What is the link between B12 & folate?
They are functionally related! Methionine synthetase is a B12 dependent enzyme, catalyses reaction free folate in tissues. Thus a deficiency in B12 also causes a deficiency in folate, regardless of whether folic acid is present in the diet or not
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Where is ascorbic acid found? Why is it important? What are the consequences of deficiency?
In citrus fruits potatoes & vegetables. Important for collagen, intercellular matrix, antioxidant (tissue protection + repair), iron absorption. Deficiency causes scurvy --> teeth/gums retracted/infected, poor wound healing
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Where is vitamin A found? What are its actions? What are the consequences of toxicity?
Liver, dairy, margarine, precursor B-carotene (carrots, green veg). Vision in dim light, growth/repair cells, gene expression & cell differentiation. Acute toxicity: N+V, headache. Chronic: increased CSF pressure, joint pain, teratogen, birth defects
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Where is vitamin D found? What are its actions? What are the consequences of deficiency & toxicity?
Fish oils, egg yolk, butter, animal fats. Helps in absorption of Ca+phosphorus for normal bone formation. Deficiency: rickets, osteomalacia. Toxicity: weakness, nausea, loss appetite, headache, abdo pain, cramp, diarrhoea & hypercalcaemia
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Card 2

Front

Which vitamins are water soluble & which are fat soluble?

Back

Water soluble = vitamin B & C. Fat soluble = vitamin A, D, E & K

Card 3

Front

Which factors increase the availability of vitamins?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Which factors decrease the availability of vitamins?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How long does the body store water soluble vitamins (vit C, B12) & fat soluble vitamins (vit A,D)?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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