Vietnam War

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How did Truman involve America in the Vietnam War?
He helped the French reclaim Vietnam (because of the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Aid).
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What did Eisenhower do in regards to American involvement in Vietnam?
He increased financial support for the French, resulting in America funding 80% of the fight. He also supported Diem financially.
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What did Kennedy do in regards to American involvement in Vietnam?
He increased the number of military advisors to 800, gave more money and materials, allowed US fighter pilots to fly over Vietnam.
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What did Johnson do in regards to American involvement in Vietnam?
He increased involvement through policies such as 'Operation Rolling Thunder', and the Gulf of Tonkin incident allowed him to introduce ground forces and air power.
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What did Nixon do in regards to American involvement in Vietnam?
he introduced Vietnamisation to help America leave Vietnam. IN 1973, America signed treaty with North Vietnam and withdrew all military involvement.
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What did Ford do in regards to American involvement in Vietnam?
South Vietnam were attacked again but America only sent financial aid and military weapons, NOT troops.
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Which side used Napalm and what is it?
The Americans used it. It is petroleum jelly that burns everything that it touches.
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Who used Agent Orange and what is it?
The Americans used it. It destroys the landscape (defoliation) meaning the Vietcong couldn't hide in the forest.
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How did America use strategic villages?
Whole villages were moved to new sites behind barbed wire. It was to keep control over who entered and left the village and to try and gain support from the civillians (they were given special aid).
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What was the Gulf of Tonkin incident?
North Vietnamese ships attacked a US destroyer. This event was used by Johnson as an excuse to take military action against North Vietnam.
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What was 'Operation Rolling Thunder'?
It was the strategic bombing campaign of North Vietnam.
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What is the My Lai Massacre? How many people were killed?
Took place in March 1968 and was the slaughter of over 300 women and children who were thought to be hiding members of the Vietcong.
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What was the Tet Offensive?
Happened in 1968 - Vietcong attacked major South Vietnamese towns and American bases. The US fought back and it resulted in 50,000 communist troops being killed.
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Explain the Guerrilla tactics used by the Vietcong and why they were so effective.
hiding in the jungle and making surprise attacks as soldiers went past. American soldiers became wary of their surroundings.
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Explain how the USSR and China helped the Vietcong.
Vietcong received aid from the USSR and China. The total aid was estimated to be over $2 billion.
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How did Thich Quand Due protest against the shooting of Buddhists?
He and 5 other Buddhist monks committed suicide in public by setting themselves on fire (self-immolation).
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Why did the Vietcong dislike Diem?
He was politically repressive, catholic (in a Buddhist country) and very corrupt.
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How did the Korean War affect America's involvement in Vietnam?
America had already helped fight communists in Korea and had won so they thought that they would also be successful in Vietnam.
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Which part of Vietnam was communist and who was the leader?
The North and the leader was Ho Chi Minh.
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What part of Vietnam was non-communist and who was the leader?
The South and the leader was Ngo Dinh Diem.
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What happened on 8th May 1963 in regards to Buddhists?
Buddhists met in Hue to celebrate the birth of Buddha but police opened fire in an attempt to disperse the crowd but 1 woman and 8 children were killed.
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How did Muhammed Ali protest against the Vietnam War? What happened to him?
He was drafted but refused to go because of his religious beliefs. He was imprisoned, stripped of his titles and was not allowed to fight in the US or abroad.
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What happened to Vietnam's neighbour countries, Laos and Cambodia?
They also became communist meaning the USA's policy of containment had failed.
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What was the 'Ho Chi Minh trail'?
A way of sending supplies from North Vietnam to the Vietcong in the underground bunkers.
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What were the 3 main ways that people protested against the Vietnam war?
Student protests, individuals such as Muhammed Ali, protest songs/Woodstock festival.
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Who used agressive tactics and who was peaceful at the student protests?
The police were violent and the students were generally peaceful (apart from some stone throwing).
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Explain how the Woodstock festival was a protest against the Vietnam war.
It was held in 1969 in aid of peace and raising awareness of what was happening in Vietnam. It was free and 500,000 people attended, clearly showing that people supported the movement.
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When were the first active US troops sent to Vietnam?
1965
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When did South Vietnam turn communist?
1975
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Card 2

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What did Eisenhower do in regards to American involvement in Vietnam?

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He increased financial support for the French, resulting in America funding 80% of the fight. He also supported Diem financially.

Card 3

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What did Kennedy do in regards to American involvement in Vietnam?

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Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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What did Johnson do in regards to American involvement in Vietnam?

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Card 5

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What did Nixon do in regards to American involvement in Vietnam?

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