Vietnam War

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When was the Franco-Vietnam War?
1946-1954
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When did Japan occupy Vietnam?
1940 with the fall of France in Europe
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What did French officials do upon their occupation?
They collaborated with the Japanese
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What rose during the Japanese occupation?
Vietnamese Nationalists
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Who were the Vietnamese Nationalists supported by?
Roosevelt as he despised colonialism
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What did the US aim to do with the end of World War 2?
They tried to stop France regaining Vietnam
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What did Vietnam quote in their declaration of independence?
They quoted the US when they declared against Great Britain
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What did the French do upon Vietnamese independence?
They wouldn't accept it and sent soldiers
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Why did the US end up supporting the French in Vietnam?
Communism had roots in the nationalist movement, so the US saw the French as helping the policy of containment
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Why was Ho Chi Min disappointed?
He had affection for the US; who he was now an enemy of
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What did the US provide the French as they slid to defeat in 1950?
Logistical and economic support
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When did the French withdraw from Vietnam?
1954
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What did the 1954 Geneva Peace Conference secure?
The creation of two states in Vietnam
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What never took place in the Geneva Peace Conference?
Unification talks
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What did the US commit itself to before the Vietnam War?
Limited military assistance and training in the South
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What problems were there with the army the US created in South Vietnam before the war?
It wasn't trained to operate counter-insurgency and had no specialist training. Worst of all it was modelled after the US army and was trained for conventional warfare
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How much of South Vietnam's budget did the US support between 1955-1960?
60%
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What did Secretary of State John Dulles threaten China with if they assisted an invasion of the South?
Nuclear war
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When did North Vietnam begin to send low level military assistance to the National Liberation Front?
1961
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What did JFK authorise in South Vietnam?
The funding of an additional 20,000 soldiers
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What did JFK send to Vietnam alongside funding?
He sent 400 "Counter-insurgency advisers", this was the first breach of the Geneva Peace Conference
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What did the US estimate about the NLF?
They had a manpower of 12,000 and were already in control of 58% of South Vietnam
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How many "counter-insurgency advisers" were there in South Vietnam by January 1962?
2,500
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How many "counter-insurgency advisers" were there in South Vietnam by June 1962?
5,500
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How many "counter-insurgency advisers" were there in South Vietnam by Kennedy's death in November 1963?
16,000
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How was Lyndon Johnson's Vietnam policy different to JFK's?
Whilst JFK was cautious, Johnson was more paranoid and aggressive
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What did the Chief of Staff; General Taylor state about South Vietnam?
"South Vietnam was the Pivot of our World-wide confrontation"
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What did General Taylor consider South Vietnam as?
The first test of the US's commitment to contain Communism
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When did Johnson send US soldiers to Vietnam?
1965
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Did the public initially support Johnson's decision to send soldiers to Vietnam?
Yes, 64% supported it
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By June 1965, how many US soldiers were there in Vietnam?
82,000
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Despite growing war concerns, what did Johnson authorise at the end of July 1965?
The dispatch of 100,000 more soldiers
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What did Johnson authorise in 1966?
The dispatch of 100,000 more soldiers
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What did General Westmoreland request by the end of 1965?
An additional 175,000 soldiers
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What happened at Tonkin Gulf in August 1965?
There was an alleged torpedo attack on two US destroyers by the DRV
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What did Johnson do in retaliation to Tonkin Gulf?
Johnson ordered the bombing of military targets in North Vietnam
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What Resolution gave Johnson unbridled war making power in the US?
The Tonkin Gulf Resolution
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As a result of the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, what operation was coined for bombing North Vietnamese targets?
Operation Rolling Thunder
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By November 1967, how many US soldiers were there in Vietnam?
500,000
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How many US casualties had there been by November 1967?
109,527 wounded and 15,058 killed
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Why did soldiers become disillusioned with why they were in Vietnam?
Washington maintained that the US were winning the war
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How did the stretch of the Vietnam War effect US soldiers?
There were physical and psychological strains on the soldiers, which saw drug abuse, mutinies and PTSD
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When was the Tet Offensive
January 31st 1968
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Why did Hanoi want the Tet Offensive?
They sought a decisive blow against the US in hopes they would give up Vietnam
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How many North Vietnamese soldiers were there in the Tet Offensive?
70,000
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Who was the Tet Offensive led by?
General Vo Nguyan Giap
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What was the result of the Tet Offensive on the battlefield?
The North Vietnamese targeted 100 cities and towns, but a quick US response saw them not hold the gained positions for more than two days
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What was the result of the Tet Offensive in the US?
It completely destroyed the support for the war effort and the US was never able to recover from it
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What further destroyed the US's public opinion after the Tet Offensive?
Westmoreland requesting an additional 200,000 soldiers
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What did Johnson do after his approval ratings dropped?
He halted bombings of the north and promised to use the remainder of his term to seek peace rather than re-election
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Why did Johnson not run for re-election?
Robert Kennedy decided to stand for the democrat nomination
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What did US warfare policy pursue?
A war of attrition rather than securing land
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What had the US designated large areas of Vietnam in 1966?
"Free fire zones" no civilians should be in these areas, only enemy combatants
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What did the US do to these "free fire zones"
Bomb them with B-52 bombers
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Despite B-52 bombings, why were the North able to reclaim these territories?
The US wouldn't secure them, so soldiers could easily move into them
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What did images of Vietnam create in the US?
Much anti-war sentiment
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What happened at Kent State University on May 4th 1970?
Ohio National Guard fired into a student protest; killing 4 and injuring 9
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How many people protested outside the Pentagon in 1967?
37,000
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What happened at My Lai in March 1968?
400 civilians were killed
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What happened as a result of the Kent State University shootings?
Mass student strikes were sparked across the USA
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Who was President during the peace talks with Vietnam?
Richard Nixon
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What was announced in Nixon's plan of withdrawing?
Ground operations would be given to South Vietnam, but the US would continue bombing and artillery bombardment
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Who were the secret peace talks conducted by?
Secretary of State; Henry Kissinger in 1968
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Why did Kissinger's peace talks fail?
He failed to find common ground between the North and South
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What did Nixon do to break the deadlock on peace talks?
B-52 bombings in the North and threats of withdrawing economic support in the south
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When did peace negotiations resume?
January 8th 1973
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When was the peace agreement initiated?
January 23rd 1973
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When was the peace agreement signed?
January 27th 1973
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What did the peace agreement allow the US to do?
Withdraw troops and retrieve American POWs
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However what did the North and South do upon the withdrawal of the US?
Continue to fight until an ultimate North victory in 1975
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Card 2

Front

When did Japan occupy Vietnam?

Back

1940 with the fall of France in Europe

Card 3

Front

What did French officials do upon their occupation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What rose during the Japanese occupation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Who were the Vietnamese Nationalists supported by?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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