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  • Created by: becky3453
  • Created on: 28-10-15 12:07
How can I remember why the USA becme involved in Vietnam?
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American Policies- Amercian people were in favour of tough line on communism and voted for presidential candidates who promised a Hawish foreign policy- during the 1960 election Kennedy promised to do the same as Eisnhower
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BIG business- big business pushed foe war so they could benefit from weapons contracts
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Containment- stopping the spread of communism
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Domino theory- they believed communism would spread if vietnam became communist
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Which three american presidents ran through war and when
1.Eisenhower 1954-1960. 2. Kennedy 1961-1963 3. Johnson 1963-1968
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Eisenhower- what happened in 1955?
1. in 1955 established South Vietnam under President Ngo Dinh Diem
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Eisenhower- how much did USA give to Diem's regime?
$1.6 billion
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What happened in 1957?
Vietcong began Guerilla War and USA sent 'military advisors'
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kennedy - actions in war- 'military advisors'
increased from 11,500 to 23,000
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Kennedy- actions in war- stragegy
began the strategic hamlets program. Scheme was affected by corruption
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Johnson- 1964- what happened?
In 1964- North Vietmanese boats fired on US warships so Jhnson used as an excuse for full scale war
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Johnson 1965
Operation rolling thunder- a massive bombing offensive and the first combat troops landed in Vietnam
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What is the Vietcong?
A communist rebel group supported ny North Vietnam
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What tactics did Vietcong use? (6 things)
1. no uniforms. 2. no clear base or headquarters 3. hit and run ambush tactics 4. booby traps and mines 5. close range attacks 6. helping local population while killing those involved with S Vietnam.
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What percent of American dies from booby traps or mines
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What percent of Americans died due to small arms fire in ambushes?
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Why did Vietcong use these tactics? (3 things)
1.they were outnumbered 2. they worked! 3. maximised advantages- morale, willingness to take casulaties, support from local population
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Why were the Vietcong tactics effective?
US morale depressed- rarely saw the enemy but were constantly attacked, Vietcong morale high
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How many Vietcong and N Vietmanese dies during the war?
over one million
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How can I remember the US Tactics
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Chemical weapons- agent orange and napalm used. Many civilians killed or suffers serious burns
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Aerial bombing. Operation rolling thunder launched in 1965. targeted cities and supply routes both north and south. More bombs dropped than against Germany and Japan in WW2
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What was success of Aerial bombing? (2 things)
1. supply routes disrupted. 2. the intensive boming in 1970-72 led to negotiations to end the war
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What were failures of aerial bombing ( 3 things)
1. NV supply routes were resilient- used bikes, carts could still get through. 2. cost a lot 3. civilians died 2/3 of bombs fell on SV
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How many american and SV aircraft shot down?
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How much to kill one Vietcong fighter?
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Search and destroy. USA established highly fortified bases from where raids were sent out by helicopter to sedtroy villages supporting Vietcong
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Whose plan was SD?
US General Westmoreland
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Problems of SD ( 3 things)
1.raids based on poor intelligence and innocent villages destryoed. 2. civilan casulaites high 3. very unpopular- pushed many SV people to suport the Vietcong
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How can I remember Americam military problems?
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Low Morale and experience. Average age was 19. Not committed to cause and did not know anything about it. Troops murdered their own officers. Drugs were taken. 18% of casulaties were non combat. 500,000 incidents of desertion
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Neighbouring countries- Cambodia and Laos supported Vietcong, USA did not want to invade more countries
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HEARTS AND MINDS. US relied upon support from people however were being attcked amd killed
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How can I remeber how Vietnam was unpopular in USA
LM Made CRY Continue- Lai Massacre,
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Lai Massacre
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What happened at lai Massacre?
March 1968. Destroyed a village called My Lai- killing 300-400 civilians mostly woman and children. Some were ***** before being killed. An Outrage when it became public.
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M (made)
Media. The first war to be covered- undermined war effort. News media only relflecting attitudes to country as a whole. Shocking detail in footage
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C (ry)
Cost- $20-30 billion a year. President Johnson nad to cut back on spending back at home. Himan cost also rising in 1968 16,899 soldiers killed
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Results- morale worsened, fought on without public support. Public support had little effect until the Tet offensive
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Young People - did not want to fight in the war- they thought it was immoral- 100 demos in firat half if 1968 and then many more- public outcry when troops kileed 4 students who were demonstrating
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C ontinue stands for
Civil rights- highlighted racial differences. 30% of African americans drafted compared to 19% white. Many white people could postpone due to University
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Civil rights
22% of casualites were african american but only 11% of force. African americans wanted to be fighting for civil rights back home and not in a foreign country
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What happened in the TET offensive in 1968?
1. surprise attacks during Tet new year celebrations Vietcong made surprise attacks on US bases and SV cities
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one vietcong unit raided US embassy in Saigon
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it was a dsiater for the communists. US fell abck at first and then fought back all they had lost. 60,000 Viet cong died.
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Results of Tet cong offensive Four things
1. american public were shocked that they were taken by surprise. 2. caused destruction and deaths. 3. news coverage becam more critical afterwards. 4. turing point- JOhnsons approval rating fell by 12%. He became convinced war was unwinnable
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Why did war end in 1973?
1. Nixon incresed bombing. 2. Nixon worked to end US involvment in Vietnam. 3. Nixon built stronger relations with USSR and China. USSR and China urged NV to negotiate. 4. National security advisor began negotiating with NV in 1969.
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5th thing
Vietmanisation- SV troops built up to allow US troops to go home.400,000 left between
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American Policies- Amercian people were in favour of tough line on communism and voted for presidential candidates who promised a Hawish foreign policy- during the 1960 election Kennedy promised to do the same as Eisnhower

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