Victimisation

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What does the UN define victims as?
Victims are those who have suffered harm (mental, physical, emotional, economic loss or impairment of basic rights) through acts or omissions that violate the laws of the state.
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What does Nils Christie do?
Highlights the notion that 'victim' is socially constructed as there is as stereotype of the 'ideal victim' just as there is of an 'ideal criminal'. The ideal victim is seen as a weak, innocent and blameless individual e.g. small child or old woman.
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What are the two broad perspectives that we can identify?
Positivist victimology and Critical victimology.
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POSITIVIST: What three features does Miers identify?
1) Aims to identify factors that produce patterns in victimisation - esp those that make some individuals or groups more likely to be victims. 2) focuses on interpersonal crimes of violance. 3) Aims to identify victims who have contributed themselves
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What did Hans Von Hentig find?
Identified 13 characteristics of victims e.g. female, elderly and mentally abnormal. Implied that they in some sense 'invite' victimisation upon themselves due to how they are.
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What did Wolfgang find?
In his study of 588 homocides, found that 26% involved victim precipitation e.g. being the first to use violance and this was often the case when the victim was male and the perpretrator female.
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Evaluation of Positivist victimology: 1) Fiona Brookman: Wolfgang shows the importance of victim-offender relationship and the fact that in many homocides, it is a matter of chance which party becomes the victim.
Approach identifies certain patterns of interpersonal victimisation but ignores wider structural factors having an influence e.g. poverty and patriarchy.
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Evaluation cont. Can easily lead to victim blaming e.g. Amir's claim that 1 in 5 rapes are victim precipated is no different from saying they 'asked for it'.
Ignores situations where victims are unaware of their victimisation e.g. some crimes against the environment and also where harm is done but no lasw is broken.
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What is critical criminology based on?
Conflict theories such as Marxism and Fem
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What is the first element that it focuses on?
1) Structural factorrs=i..e. partriarchy and poverty which place powerless groups such as women and the poor at greater risk. Mawby and Walklate argue victimisation is a form of structural powerlessness.
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What is the second element?
2) State's power to apply/deny the label of victim. Through the CSP, the state applies the label of victim to some but not others e.g. when police deceide not to press charges against a man for assualting his wife, denies her victim status.
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What do Tombs and Whyte show?
Safety crimes where employers' violations of the law that lead to death or injury to workers, are often explained away as the fault of 'accident prone' workers. Rape cases-both denies victim of official status and blames them for their fate.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Highlights the notion that 'victim' is socially constructed as there is as stereotype of the 'ideal victim' just as there is of an 'ideal criminal'. The ideal victim is seen as a weak, innocent and blameless individual e.g. small child or old woman.

Back

What does Nils Christie do?

Card 3

Front

Positivist victimology and Critical victimology.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

1) Aims to identify factors that produce patterns in victimisation - esp those that make some individuals or groups more likely to be victims. 2) focuses on interpersonal crimes of violance. 3) Aims to identify victims who have contributed themselves

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Identified 13 characteristics of victims e.g. female, elderly and mentally abnormal. Implied that they in some sense 'invite' victimisation upon themselves due to how they are.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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