(ceases to attack... ceases to attack) The anaphora emphasises Aeneas' hatred for Turnus.
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(casts aside... breaks off) These two verbs in the same sentence proves that Aeneas' focus shifts. It cerates tension.
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(all... all) The anaphora again emphasises Aeneas' power and determination to win the battle.
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(leaping with joy) The interesting word choice here shows that Aeneas is fierce and ready to fight.
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(thunders) The interesting word choice shows that this fight will be tense and powerful. Turnus will have to beware of Aeneas.
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quantus Athos, aut quantus Eryx, aut ipse coruscis cum fremit ilicibus quantus gaudetque nivali vertice se attollens pater Appenninus ad auras.
This similie to a mountain is a unique and interesting way to show the power of Aeneas.
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Rutuli... Troes... omens Itali
(Rutulians... trojans... Italians) The tricolon of the spectators who can't wait to watch brings anticipation. There is emphatic position of the word 'omens' and a polysyndeton is used to emphasise the number of people eager to see...et...et...et.
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alta tenebant moenia... imos pulsabant muros... armaque deposuere umeris
(defending the high walls... those who were battering the bottom of the walls... put down their armour from their shoulders). The speed that they stop various activities to see these actions builds anticipation.
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(amazed) Emphatic position of this word emaphasises Latinus' amazement. The 'ipse' meaning himself shows that even he can't wait.
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(mighty) Emphatic position at the beginning of the line and enjambement emphasising their greatness of impending duel.
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diversis partibus orbis
(born on different parts of the Earth) This anticipates different fighting techniques and we desire to see who's the greatest.
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coisse... cernere ferro
(had met eachother and were fighting it out with the sword) The alliteration of Cs are for the ferocity of the battle and ferocity can only increase.
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vacuo patuerunt aequore
(were clear with open surface) This creates huge anticipation by the calmness of the plain. Calm before STORM!
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procursu rapido proiectis eminus hastis
(with a swift charge with spears hurled from a distance) Very dramatic action and the word 'eminus' - 'from a distance' shows eagerness.
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(they rush into Battle) The delay of this phrase in the sentence and the personification of Martem implies a fantastic duel.
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clipeis aere sonoro
(with shields of echoing bronze) The sound of this phrase resembles the echoing sounds of the bronze.
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(a groan... they repeat) The repetition of 'gem' is almost onomatopoeic in sound and resembles the groans and strain of the atmosphere.
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fors et vitus miscetur in unum
(chance and courage are mingled into one) This shows that skill alone does not get a good outcome; luck also plays a part. This builds anticipation as it shows that A + T both stand the same chance - who will win?
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(two bulls) A similie referring to Aeneas and Turnus as bulls. Builds anticipation, as they are both the same animal; one is not stronger than the other - both the same strength and unknown as to who will succeed.
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pavidi cessere magistri
(the herdsmen retreat in terror) The present tense here shows sudden action. An interesting word choice of 'terror' showing how serious this battle is and emphatic position of the word at the beginning, showing that terror is dominant.
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omne metu mutum, mussant
(the whole... dumb with fear... uncertain) The alliteration of Ms stresses the uncertainty of the cows and creates a 'Moo' sound.
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quis nemori imperitet, quem tota armenta sequantur
(which-one will rule the forest and which one the whole herd will follow) These are two indirect statements and the word choice of 'imperitet' - will rule and 'sequantur' - will follow, stresses how important the outcome of the fight is.
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(resounds with their groaning) This creates a 'mooing' sound by the Ms - resembles the groan of pain of the effort.
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Tros Aeneas et Daunius heros
(Trojan Aeneas and the hero son of Daunus) Juxta position of the two heros.
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(Clash with their shields) The alliteration of Cs resembles the sound of clashing shields.
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(noise) Very onomatopoeic in sound
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(Jupiter himself) The subject is at the beginning of the line but the verbs are delayed. This creates suspense as we don't know what he will do... sustinet et fata imponit - lifts scales and puts it in their own fates.
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quem damnet labor et quo vergat pondere letum.
(which one the struggle will doom and with whose weight death will sink down). Effective use of indirect statements, as we are never told... suspense and anticipation is created. 'Letum' is at the end of the line to build further suspense.
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(thinking it safe) There is plenty of irony here, as it was not safe.
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emicat... consurgit... et ferit
(Darts foward... rises... and strikes) The 'ferit' is enjambement and is delayed until the end and the beginning of the line to show fast action after slow build up.
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alte sublatum consurgit Turnus in ensem
This line is very spondeic - the rhythm is slow to reflect Turnus rising to his full height before the fast action of the strike = Suspense! There is emphatic position of the word 'Turnus'- buried in the middle of the action.
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perfidus ensis fragitur
(the treacherous sword is broken) The description of the sword creates huge tension and suspense.
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(flight...fled) There is a polyptoton. Will he escape?
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ignotum capulum... dextram inermem
(unfamiliar hilt... unarmed right hand) The choice of vocab creates suspense.
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praecipitem... prima in proelia
The alliteration of Ps stresses the eagerness.
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nunc huc inde huc
(now this way, now that way) Indecisive nature; very aimless. Turnus wants to get out.
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nec minus Aeneas quamquam tardata sagitta
(Aeneas (pursues) no less (eagerly), although... slowed by the arrow wound...) The spondees slow down the line - resembles Turnus.
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insequitur... interdum... impediunt...inclusum
(pursues... sometimes... delay (him)... shut in) The alliteration of 'in' resembles Aeneas closing in on Turnus.
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(the foot... with his own foot) The juxta position of these two words stresses how close Aeneas is to Turnus.
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(hotly presses on against) This shows eagerness and determination.
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inclusum veluti si quando flumine nactus cervum aut puniceae saeptum formidine pennae venator cursu canis et latratibus instat
The subject of 'venator canis' - 'a hunting dog', is delayed and so builds suspense.
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ille autem insidiis et ripa territus alta
(The stag however terrified by the snare and the high river bank...) The word choice of 'territus'- 'terrified' creates pathos.
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mille fugit refugitque vias at vividus Umber
(flees and turns back a thousand ways but the eager Umbrian (hound)...) The highly dactylic line resembles agitation. The longer spondees on 'Umber' resembles the confident hound.
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(clings close with a gaping mouth) The alliteration of 'Hs' creates the sound of panting dogs.
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(has snapped... reproaches) This is an ironic echo with a different meaning.
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responsant circa et caelum tonat omne tumultu
(echo around and the whole sky thunders with the uproar). This is a very spondeic line to slow down the action. What is happening?
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vita et sanguine
(life and blood) This is a hendiadys and helps to emphasise the suspense of the situation.
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(Aeneas presses on...) Emphatic position of this word shows immediate action.
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(and wields his spear) This shows that Aeneas is strong.
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(huge like a tree) The further description of the spear shows that he must be powerful.
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(as follows from his savage...) The word choice of 'savage' shows that Aeneas is portrayed as savage. The sibilance gives an aggressive sound.
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"quae nunc deinde mora est? aut quid iam, Turne, retractus?
Direct speech creates drama. These are also rhetorical, very provocotive to Turnus and mocking implication that Turnus is a cowards. The anaphora of 'now' shows impatience. 'Turne' is in the vocotive case. This shows arrogance from Aeneas.
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(not by running) Emphatic position of the phrase is to Aeneas mocking Turnus' cowardice. But 'Saevis est comminus armis' - savage weapons at close quaters- highlighting how fearless he is.
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verte... contrahe... opta
(turn... summon... choose) The imperatives shows authority and intimidating Turnus of what he might do. No matter what Turnus does, he cannot escape.
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(scare.. scare) Turnus' words are not as dominant as they may suggest. By repeating the word of 'scare' it shows that Turnus is scared.
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(arrogant foe) This word is delayed and separated. This shows that Turnus is eager to bring down Aeneas' confidence.
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raptum trepida torquebat in hostem
(in haste (and) tried to hurl it at his enemy) The harsh sounds of Ts shows anger.
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(rushing at speed) The alliteration of Cs resembles the sound of fire and enthusiasm.
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neque currentem nec euntem tollentemve saxumve moventem
(does not... running or advancing or raising... or hurling the rock). The internal repetition expresses dispair and the repeated past participles expresses the effort.
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(his knees give way) This creates pathos and the emphatic position gives no delay as to what has happened.
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gelidus concrevit frigore sanguis
(his blood is frozen chill with cold) The word choice here to describe Turnus' pain creates pathos and expresses his fear and panic.
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non lingua valet, non corpore notae sufficiunt vires nec vox aut verba sequuntur
(our tongue has no power and out usual strength is of no avail in our body and neither voice nor words follow) A tricolon of negatives shows the failure of Turnus.
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quacumque viam virtue petivit
(wherever he tried to find a way by valour) This emphasises the bravery of Turnus but even so 'dea dira negat' - the dread goddess denies him. Despite his bravery, the gods are against him. Stresses Turnus' panic and makes us feel sorry for him.
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sensus vertuntur varii
(various feelings are stirred up) The V sounds show uncertainty and hesitation. The reader feels sorry for him as he doesn't know what to do.
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Rutulos aspectat et urbem
(he looks at the Rutulians and the city) Sympathy is expressed here as Turnus looks around in despair. The Rutulians cannot help him - Turnus is in panic and so readers feel sorry for Turnus.
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cunctatur metu... tremiscit
(hesitated in fear and trembled) The physical effect of panic is shown by this word choice and sympathy is created.
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nec quo se eripiat, nec qua vi tendat in hostem, nec currus usquam videt aurigamve sororem
(he does not see where he can take refuge nor with what force he is to advance against his enemy, nor does he see his chariot anywhere or his charioteer sister). Repetition of 'nec' shows panic and abandonment!
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(the lucky spot) This shows that Turnus has no chance - the luck is with Aeneas (not Turnus) again emphasising how the Gods etc have abandoned him to his fate.
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cunctanti... coruscat telum fatale
(hesitates... wields the fatal spear) Turnus hesitates/ Aeneas wields the spear. There is a contrast between these two words. The word choice of 'fatal' shows Turnus' approaching doom - he has no escape.
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murali concita numquam tormento sic saxa fremunt nec fulmine tanti dissultant crepitus
This shows Turnus' approaching doom - the spear is so powerful that it is more powerful than a siege engine or lightning bolt. The Fs and ** creates the sound of the spear whistling through the air. The harsh Ts of 'dissultant crepitus' = crash.
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(it passes whistling) The sibilance creates this whistling sound.
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ingens ad terram duplicato poplite Turnus
(mighty Turnus (falls) to the ground on bended knee) This is a very spondeic line - slows down the line to build tension.
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consurgunt gemitu Rutuli totusque remugit
(The Rutulians rise up with a groan and the whole (hillside around) echos). A sound effect of groans is created by the Us.
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'equidem merui nec deprecor'
(Indeed I have deserved it and I do not ask for mercy) Turnus formally surrendors - this creates pathos for Turnus.
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(You have won... defeated) This is a polyptoton and shows the complete contrast to the outcome of the fight between Turnus and Aeneas.
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tua est Lavinia coniunx
(Lavinia is your wife) A simple statement of surrendor.
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miserere... redde... tende
(pity... restore... stretch) These are imperatives from Turnus. It shows that he is surrendering although he may not be happy about it. He is getting impatient and he is in pain, he wants this event to be over.
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sumit ex scelerato sanguine
(exacts... from your wicked blood) The sibilance creates a hiss of rage.
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(rolling his eyes) This is dramatic and creates a sense of tension, as we don't know what he will do.
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stetit acer in armis
(stood fierce in his armour) Effective choice of vocab - 'fierce'. Again very dramatic.
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furiis accensus et ira terribilis
(roused to fury and terrifying in his anger) This is dramatic as Aeneas loses his temper and there is enjambement to show extent of anger.
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(boiling with rage) This is enjambement and extremely visual!
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'tune hinc spoliis indute meorum eripiare mihi?'
(Are you to be snatched away from me here wearing the spoils of my friend?) This is very dramatic due to direct speech.
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The repetition of the name 'Pallas' highlights Aeneas' grief and anger.
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volvens oculos dextramque repressit... iam iamque magis... cunctatem... coeperat
(rolling his eyes and held back his right hand... every moment more and more... hesitated( pres.participle highlights hesitation)... begun(enjambement)) We dont know if A will spare T - suspense.
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(unlucky baldric) Emphatic position with the word 'infelix' to show sudden change. There is direct drama built as 'balteus' is separated and we want to know what is unlucky.
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vitaque cum gemitu fugit indignata sub umbras
(and his life flees with a groan, resentful to the shades below) Very dactylic last line to show soul quickly leaving. A very dramatic and violent end.
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Other cards in this set
(casts aside... breaks off) These two verbs in the same sentence proves that Aeneas' focus shifts. It cerates tension.
Similar Latin resources: