Variation and Inheritance

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Allele
One of a pair of genes on a chromosome that controls the same trait - one comes from the mother and the other from the father and an allele may be dominant or recessive.
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Amnion
Thin, tough, membranous sac that encloses the embryo or fetus of a mammal, bird or reptile.
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Chromosome
A structure within the cell that has the genetic material as a strand of DNA in the cell nucleus.
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Diploid
(of a cell or nucleus) containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent. (of an organism or part) composed of diploid cells.
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Dominant
Characteristic that will show up in an organism's phenotype if the allele is present.
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Embryo
Unborn human baby, esp. in the first eight weeks from conception, after implantation but before all the organs are developed.
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Fetus
Unborn young of a viviparous vertebrate having a basic structural resemblance to the adult animal
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Gamete
Sex cell; sperm or egg.
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Gene
Section of DNA that codes for a protein/characteristic.
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Genetic Variation
Differences between individuals caused by variation in their DNA.
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Genotype
Genetic makeup of an organism.
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Haploid
The number of chromosomes in a gamete of an organism, symbolised by n.
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Heterozygous
Has two DIFFERENT alleles for a particular trait; hybrid, eg. Pp
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Homozygous
Has two IDENTICAL alleles of a particular characteristic; true-breeding or purebred eg. pp or PP (see Heterozygous)
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Karotype
The characterisation of the chromosomes of a species (such as the shape, type, nucleus of the cell, number, etc. of chromosomes)
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Mitosis
Asexual reproduction in which the cell divides in two producing a replica, with an equal number of chromosomes in each resulting diploid cell
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Meiosis
Cellular reproduction in which the number of chromosomes are reduced by half through the separation of homologous chromosomes, producing two haploid cells
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Mutation
A permanent, heritable change in the nucleotide sequence in a gene or a chromosome
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Phenotype
Physical characteristics of an organism (eg. eye colour, tongue rolling, behvaiour)
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Punnett Square
Diagram that shows the possible results of a of a genetic cross; parents' gametes on top and left, offsprings' genotypes inside
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Recessive
Characteristic that will only appear in the phenotype if organism inherits two of the mother and another set from the father. In a diploid state, the haploid number is them; covered up by a dominant allele.
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Zygote
a diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes; a fertilized ovum.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Thin, tough, membranous sac that encloses the embryo or fetus of a mammal, bird or reptile.

Back

Amnion

Card 3

Front

A structure within the cell that has the genetic material as a strand of DNA in the cell nucleus.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

(of a cell or nucleus) containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent. (of an organism or part) composed of diploid cells.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Characteristic that will show up in an organism's phenotype if the allele is present.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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