Validity and Reliability

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what does the term 'aim' mean?
A broad of the purpose of research i.e what the researcher would like to find out.
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What does the term 'experimental hypothesis' mean?
A testable statement that a piece of research attempts to support or reject.
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what does the term 'directional hypothesis' mean?
a directional hypothesis predicts that the IV will affect the DV in one specific direction. It allows
for only one outcome. E.g. noise (IV) will lead to
fewer words being recalled (DV) compared to silence.
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what does the term 'non-directional hypothesis'
A non-directional hypothesis predicts the IV will affect the DV, but does not state a specific direction for the results. It allows for more than one outcome E.g Noise (IV) will affect recall of words (DV)
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what does the term 'Null hypothesis' mean?
The null suggests there will be no casual relationship between IV and DV (co-variables), any relationship in the result is due to chance, rather than due to the IV.
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what is the independent variable (IV)?
The IV is the variable the psychologists manipulates and controls to see how it effects behaviour. (the thing being measured- DV)
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what is the dependent variable?
The DV is the variable which is measured (usually the participants' behaviour) which is effected by the IV (because the psychologist has changed something.)
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What does the term operationalisation mean?
Giving a precise definition of the behaviour being manipulated/observed/measured (IV/DV). Both
the IV and DV should be operationalised. This allows for repetition and raises reliability as it is an
agreed value
has been attributed to the measurement e.
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what does co-variables mean?
The two variables that may or may not change/vary with each other. i.e as one increases so does the other in a correlation,or vice versa. In other words, co-variables are the data sets on the vertical and horizontal axis of a scatter gram that show a rela
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what is meant by the term 'extraneous variables'?
These are variables in a study that are not being measured or manipulated by the researcher but affect the results (DV) of ALL participants' behaviour equally. For example, the setting or timing of the study could make participants
more (or less) prone t
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What is meant by the term 'confounding variables'?
Confounding variables are things in a study, other than the IV, which might affect SOME participants' behaviours(DV). if possible they need to be controlled before an investigation gets under way to make it a fair test and to maximise reliability.
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what does the term internal reliability mean?
The extent to which a test or measure is consistent within itself e.g. the use of a standardised instructions and procedure for all PPS.
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what is meant by the term 'External reliability'?
The extent to which a test produces consistent results over several occasions.
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What are the three ways of assessing reliabilty?
The split-half method
The test-retest method
Inter-rater reliability
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What is 'the split-half method' ?
Involves splitting a PP'S test answers in half and seeing whether s/he got the same or similar scored on the two halves. if so, internal reliability is high: if not, it is low and individual questions would need to be redesigned.
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What is the 'test-retest method'?
Involves testing and retesting the same participants over time with same test, and comparing their scores. If the scores are the same the test has external reliability.
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What is 'Inter-rater reliability' test?
Where two or more psychologists produce consistent results by using a standardised procedure, agreed coding system, or correlation of their data.
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What is meant by the term 'external validity'?
The findings are accurate and the effects on the DV are caused by the IV . Therefore the study measures what it intends to measure (as confounding variables have been controlled and will not affect the results.)
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what is meant by the term external validity?
Whether the study paints a true picture of rea life behaviours (e.g if the tasks have mundane realism) and whether the findings would apply to different places, different times, or different people.
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What are the ways of assessing validity?
face validity
content validity
predictive validity
concurrent validity
construct validity
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what is face validity?
the least sophisticated measure of validity. Face validity is simply whether the test appears (at face value) to measure what it claims to, and hence is subjective. Tests where the purpose is clear, even to naive respondents, are said to have high face va
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What is content validity?
This objectively checks the method of measuring behaviour is accurate and decides whether it is a fair test that achieves the aims of the study (internal validity) Asks an expert in that specific areal of behaviour to check the test is valid.
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What is predictive validity?
the degree to which a test accurately predicts a future outcome on a more broadly related topic. Do findings apply in different and more varied situations? E.g. do those with high IQ score gain higher grades in exams?
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What is concurrent validity?
Validating a measurement by comparing it with an established measurement that has known validity. If similar results occur on both tests, then the new test has concurrent validity. If not,then the new test would have to be redesigned and tested.
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What is construct validity?
Look at the extent to which a test measures the intended theoretical construct or definitions of that overall behaviour. This the most sophisticated test of validity as it looks at whether the overall results reflects the phenomena as a whole (external va
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What are the specific validity issues?
Researcher Bias
Demand characteristics
Social desirability bias
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what is researcher bias?
where the researcher either directly or indirectly influences the results of a study, through the process of designing the study or through the way the research is conducted/analysed.
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What is demand characteristics?
A type of confounding variable where participants unconsciously work out the aim and act differently (either through social desirability or the screw you effect.)
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What is social desirability bias?
Where participants give the response that they think will show them in the best possible light. This may mean that they are not a true reflection of their real thoughts/feelings.
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What is the term 'reliability mean'?
Whether the findings of a study produce consistent results- would similar results arise if the study was repeated.
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What does the term validity mean?
Whether the findings paint a true picture of behaviour and whether the study is measuring what it claims to measure.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does the term 'experimental hypothesis' mean?

Back

A testable statement that a piece of research attempts to support or reject.

Card 3

Front

what does the term 'directional hypothesis' mean?

Card 4

Front

what does the term 'non-directional hypothesis'

Card 5

Front

what does the term 'Null hypothesis' mean?