Validating New Knowledge

HideShow resource information
What is peer review and what does it do?
It's where scientific quality is judged, as it's in the interests of all scientists that their work is held up for scrutiny and any that's flawed of fraudulent is detected and it's results ignored.
1 of 27
What findings did Cyril Burt publish in the 1950s?
He published results from studies of identical twins that was used to show that intellegence is inherited.
2 of 27
Briefly outline Burt's method and findings.
Burt started with 21 pairs of twins raised apart, later increasing this to 42 and then 53, reporting an identical correlation of 0.771.
3 of 27
What was suspisious about Burt's findings, and what did this lead to?
The consistency of these correlations led Komin to accuse him of inventing data?
4 of 27
What confirmed that Burt's research was fraudulent?
When a reporter failed to find 2 of Burt's assistants this confirmed the fraud, and Burt was dicredited, but these accusations have been challenged?
5 of 27
Why is Burt's research an issue?
His research was used to establish the 11-Plus exam, as he argued that since IQ was genetic then it was appropriate to test and segregate children.
6 of 27
Give an example of a recent case of fraudulent research.
In 2010 Marc Hauser was found responsible for misconduct related to papers, mainly cotton-top tamarin monkeys and their cognitive ability, where he's drawn conclusions for which he has been unable to provide evidence.
7 of 27
Outline Leslie John and colleagues' method and findings.
They surveyed 2000 psychologists, asking them to anonymously report their involvment in questionable research. They found that 70% said they cut corners in reporting data and 1% admitted to falsifying data.
8 of 27
What did Leslie John and colleagues conclude?
That questionable practices may consitute the research norm.
9 of 27
What is the aftermath of fraudulent research?
People are less likely to be trusting of scientific data, and data from fraudulent studies remains published, so there are people who will continue to use it.
10 of 27
Define peer review.
It's the assessment of scientific work by others who are experts in the same field to ensure that research is of high quality.
11 of 27
Outline the role of peer reviewers?
They're unpaid, and there are a number of them for each application/article/assessment to report on the quality, and then their views are considered by a peer review panel.
12 of 27
What 3 purposes does peer review serve?
Allocation of funding, publication of research in scientific journals and books, and assessing the research rating of university departments.
13 of 27
Why is allocation of funding important?
Reseach is paid for by government and charitable bodies.
14 of 27
Why is peer review important in the publication of research in scientific journals and books?
Journals provide scientists the opportunity to share their research. Peer review has only been used since the middle of the 20th century. Before it, research was published and the proof lay with opponents of new ideas.
15 of 27
Why is peer review important in assessing the research rationg of university departments.
This is assessed in terms of quality. Future funding depends on recieving good ratings from the RAE peer review.
16 of 27
How is the internet affecting peer review?
The volume and pace of information on the Internet means that new solutions are needed to maintain quality. Scientific research is available in blogs, journals and Wikipedia, which are policed by the 'wisdom of crowds'. Journals ask readers to...
17 of 27
Previous card continued.
rate articles. On the Internet 'peer' is coming to mean 'everyone'.
18 of 27
Why is finding an expert an issue with peer review?
Is isn't always possible to find an expert to review research, meaning that poor research may be passed because the reviewer didn't understand it.
19 of 27
Why is anonymity an issue with peer review?
It's practiced so reviewers can be honest and objective, however it may have the opposite effect if they use it to settle scores or bury research. Research is conducted in a social world where people compete for grants and jobs, and make friends...
20 of 27
Previous card continued.
and enemies, which affect objectivity. Some journals favour open reviewing.
21 of 27
Why is publication bias an issue with peer review?
Journals publish positive results because editors want research that has important implications in order to increase the standing of their journal, resulting in a bias in research that leads to a misperception of the facts.
22 of 27
What do journals avoid publishing?
Replications of a study.
23 of 27
Why is preserving the status quo an issue with peer review?
Peer review results in a preference for research that goes with the existing theory. Richard Horton said 'the mistake is to have thought peer review was any more than a crude means of discovering the acceptablily of a finding'.
24 of 27
What issues does peer review bring about in changing science?
Science is resistant to shifts in opinion. Change takes time and requires a 'revolution' in the way people think. Peer review may be 1 of the elements that slows change down.
25 of 27
What is another issue with peer review?
It can't deal with already published research.
26 of 27
How does Wikipedia deal with peer review?
By having levels of editor to check information, however they recognise that it's more difficult to recognise 'subtle viewpoint promotion', but they point out that bias is more likely to be pointed out, and it permits instant revision.
27 of 27

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What findings did Cyril Burt publish in the 1950s?

Back

He published results from studies of identical twins that was used to show that intellegence is inherited.

Card 3

Front

Briefly outline Burt's method and findings.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What was suspisious about Burt's findings, and what did this lead to?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What confirmed that Burt's research was fraudulent?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Research methods and techniques resources »