Vaccines

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  • Created by: rhea12345
  • Created on: 17-01-16 17:40
What is passive immunity?
Produces by the production of antibodies into an individual from an outside source.
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What is active immunity?
Produced by stimulating the production of antibodies by the individuals own immune system.
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What is natural active immunity?
Results from an individual becoming infected with a disease under normal circumstances.
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What is artificial active immunity?
Forms the basis of vaccination (immunisation).
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What is a vaccine?
A vaccine is when a small amount of antigens from a pathogen are inserted into the body via the mouth or an injection.
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What do vaccines do?
They create an immune response. This will then stimulate the production of memory cells which, if the body is infected with a pathogen with the same antigens, a more immediate response will take place. Therefore, the infection is overcome rapidly.
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Name 3 factors that vaccinations depend on for success.
1. Must be economically available in sufficient quantities. 2. There must be few side affects. 3. Means of producing, storing and transport mus be available.
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Name 2 other factors that vaccines depend on for success.
1. The administrator must be trained and also it must be administered at the right time. 2. It must be possible to vaccinate the vast majority of the vulnerable population to produce herd immunity.
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What is herd immunity?
It is when a large proportion of the population have been vaccinated to make it difficult for the pathogen to spread.
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Give 3 reasons to why vaccines may not work.
1. The vaccine may fail to induce immunity. e.g. people with defective immune systems. 2. Individuals may develop the disease shortly after receiving the vaccine. 3. The pathogen may mutate quickly, this is called antigenic variable.
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Give 3 other reasons to why vaccines may not work.
1. There may be variations in the pathogen. e.g. the common cold. 2. Certain pathogens can "hide" from the body's immune system e.g. "hiding" inside cells. 3. People may not want vaccines for ethical or religious reasons.
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Name 3 ethical issues for vaccines.
1. It involves the use of animals. 2. It is expensive on large scale. 3. Some vaccines have side-effects that may cause long-term harm.
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Card 2

Front

What is active immunity?

Back

Produced by stimulating the production of antibodies by the individuals own immune system.

Card 3

Front

What is natural active immunity?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is artificial active immunity?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a vaccine?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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